# NAG FL Interfacef07msf (zhetrs)

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## 1Purpose

f07msf solves a complex Hermitian indefinite system of linear equations with multiple right-hand sides,
 $AX=B ,$
where $A$ has been factorized by f07mrf.

## 2Specification

Fortran Interface
 Subroutine f07msf ( uplo, n, nrhs, a, lda, ipiv, b, ldb, info)
 Integer, Intent (In) :: n, nrhs, lda, ipiv(*), ldb Integer, Intent (Out) :: info Complex (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (In) :: a(lda,*) Complex (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (Inout) :: b(ldb,*) Character (1), Intent (In) :: uplo
#include <nag.h>
 void f07msf_ (const char *uplo, const Integer *n, const Integer *nrhs, const Complex a[], const Integer *lda, const Integer ipiv[], Complex b[], const Integer *ldb, Integer *info, const Charlen length_uplo)
The routine may be called by the names f07msf, nagf_lapacklin_zhetrs or its LAPACK name zhetrs.

## 3Description

f07msf is used to solve a complex Hermitian indefinite system of linear equations $AX=B$, this routine must be preceded by a call to f07mrf which computes the Bunch–Kaufman factorization of $A$.
If ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\text{'U'}$, $A=PUD{U}^{\mathrm{H}}{P}^{\mathrm{T}}$, where $P$ is a permutation matrix, $U$ is an upper triangular matrix and $D$ is an Hermitian block diagonal matrix with $1×1$ and $2×2$ blocks; the solution $X$ is computed by solving $PUDY=B$ and then ${U}^{\mathrm{H}}{P}^{\mathrm{T}}X=Y$.
If ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\text{'L'}$, $A=PLD{L}^{\mathrm{H}}{P}^{\mathrm{T}}$, where $L$ is a lower triangular matrix; the solution $X$ is computed by solving $PLDY=B$ and then ${L}^{\mathrm{H}}{P}^{\mathrm{T}}X=Y$.

## 4References

Golub G H and Van Loan C F (1996) Matrix Computations (3rd Edition) Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore

## 5Arguments

1: $\mathbf{uplo}$Character(1) Input
On entry: specifies how $A$ has been factorized.
${\mathbf{uplo}}=\text{'U'}$
$A=PUD{U}^{\mathrm{H}}{P}^{\mathrm{T}}$, where $U$ is upper triangular.
${\mathbf{uplo}}=\text{'L'}$
$A=PLD{L}^{\mathrm{H}}{P}^{\mathrm{T}}$, where $L$ is lower triangular.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\text{'U'}$ or $\text{'L'}$.
2: $\mathbf{n}$Integer Input
On entry: $n$, the order of the matrix $A$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
3: $\mathbf{nrhs}$Integer Input
On entry: $r$, the number of right-hand sides.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{nrhs}}\ge 0$.
4: $\mathbf{a}\left({\mathbf{lda}},*\right)$Complex (Kind=nag_wp) array Input
Note: the second dimension of the array a must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
On entry: details of the factorization of $A$, as returned by f07mrf.
5: $\mathbf{lda}$Integer Input
On entry: the first dimension of the array a as declared in the (sub)program from which f07msf is called.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{lda}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
6: $\mathbf{ipiv}\left(*\right)$Integer array Input
Note: the dimension of the array ipiv must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
On entry: details of the interchanges and the block structure of $D$, as returned by f07mrf.
7: $\mathbf{b}\left({\mathbf{ldb}},*\right)$Complex (Kind=nag_wp) array Input/Output
Note: the second dimension of the array b must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{nrhs}}\right)$.
On entry: the $n×r$ right-hand side matrix $B$.
On exit: the $n×r$ solution matrix $X$.
8: $\mathbf{ldb}$Integer Input
On entry: the first dimension of the array b as declared in the (sub)program from which f07msf is called.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{ldb}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.
9: $\mathbf{info}$Integer Output
On exit: ${\mathbf{info}}=0$ unless the routine detects an error (see Section 6).

## 6Error Indicators and Warnings

${\mathbf{info}}<0$
If ${\mathbf{info}}=-i$, argument $i$ had an illegal value. An explanatory message is output, and execution of the program is terminated.

## 7Accuracy

For each right-hand side vector $b$, the computed solution $x$ is the exact solution of a perturbed system of equations $\left(A+E\right)x=b$, where
• if ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\text{'U'}$, $|E|\le c\left(n\right)\epsilon P|U||D||{U}^{\mathrm{H}}|{P}^{\mathrm{T}}$;
• if ${\mathbf{uplo}}=\text{'L'}$, $|E|\le c\left(n\right)\epsilon P|L||D||{L}^{\mathrm{H}}|{P}^{\mathrm{T}}$,
$c\left(n\right)$ is a modest linear function of $n$, and $\epsilon$ is the machine precision.
If $\stackrel{^}{x}$ is the true solution, then the computed solution $x$ satisfies a forward error bound of the form
 $‖x-x^‖∞ ‖x‖∞ ≤c(n)cond(A,x)ε$
where $\mathrm{cond}\left(A,x\right)={‖|{A}^{-1}||A||x|‖}_{\infty }/{‖x‖}_{\infty }\le \mathrm{cond}\left(A\right)={‖|{A}^{-1}||A|‖}_{\infty }\le {\kappa }_{\infty }\left(A\right)$.
Note that $\mathrm{cond}\left(A,x\right)$ can be much smaller than $\mathrm{cond}\left(A\right)$.
Forward and backward error bounds can be computed by calling f07mvf, and an estimate for ${\kappa }_{\infty }\left(A\right)$ ($\text{}={\kappa }_{1}\left(A\right)$) can be obtained by calling f07muf.

## 8Parallelism and Performance

f07msf makes calls to BLAS and/or LAPACK routines, which may be threaded within the vendor library used by this implementation. Consult the documentation for the vendor library for further information.
Please consult the X06 Chapter Introduction for information on how to control and interrogate the OpenMP environment used within this routine. Please also consult the Users' Note for your implementation for any additional implementation-specific information.

The total number of real floating-point operations is approximately $8{n}^{2}r$.
This routine may be followed by a call to f07mvf to refine the solution and return an error estimate.
The real analogue of this routine is f07mef.

## 10Example

This example solves the system of equations $AX=B$, where
 $A= ( -1.36+0.00i 1.58+0.90i 2.21-0.21i 3.91+1.50i 1.58-0.90i -8.87+0.00i -1.84-0.03i -1.78+1.18i 2.21+0.21i -1.84+0.03i -4.63+0.00i 0.11+0.11i 3.91-1.50i -1.78-1.18i 0.11-0.11i -1.84+0.00i )$
and
 $B= ( 7.79+05.48i -35.39+18.01i -0.77-16.05i 4.23-70.02i -9.58+03.88i -24.79-08.40i 2.98-10.18i 28.68-39.89i ) .$
Here $A$ is Hermitian indefinite and must first be factorized by f07mrf.

### 10.1Program Text

Program Text (f07msfe.f90)

### 10.2Program Data

Program Data (f07msfe.d)

### 10.3Program Results

Program Results (f07msfe.r)