NAG FL Interface
f01enf (real_​gen_​matrix_​sqrt)

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1 Purpose

f01enf computes the principal matrix square root, A1/2, of a real n×n matrix A.

2 Specification

Fortran Interface
Subroutine f01enf ( n, a, lda, ifail)
Integer, Intent (In) :: n, lda
Integer, Intent (Inout) :: ifail
Real (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (Inout) :: a(lda,*)
C Header Interface
#include <nag.h>
void  f01enf_ (const Integer *n, double a[], const Integer *lda, Integer *ifail)
The routine may be called by the names f01enf or nagf_matop_real_gen_matrix_sqrt.

3 Description

A square root of a matrix A is a solution X to the equation X2=A. A nonsingular matrix has multiple square roots. For a matrix with no eigenvalues on the closed negative real line, the principal square root, denoted by A1/2, is the unique square root whose eigenvalues lie in the open right half-plane.
A1/2 is computed using the algorithm described in Higham (1987). This is a real arithmetic version of the algorithm of Björck and Hammarling (1983). In addition a blocking scheme described in Deadman et al. (2013) is used.

4 References

Björck Å and Hammarling S (1983) A Schur method for the square root of a matrix Linear Algebra Appl. 52/53 127–140
Deadman E, Higham N J and Ralha R (2013) Blocked Schur Algorithms for Computing the Matrix Square Root Applied Parallel and Scientific Computing: 11th International Conference, (PARA 2012, Helsinki, Finland) P. Manninen and P. Öster, Eds Lecture Notes in Computer Science 7782 171–181 Springer–Verlag
Higham N J (1987) Computing real square roots of a real matrix Linear Algebra Appl. 88/89 405–430
Higham N J (2008) Functions of Matrices: Theory and Computation SIAM, Philadelphia, PA, USA

5 Arguments

1: n Integer Input
On entry: n, the order of the matrix A.
Constraint: n0.
2: a(lda,*) Real (Kind=nag_wp) array Input/Output
Note: the second dimension of the array a must be at least n.
On entry: the n×n matrix A.
On exit: contains, if ifail=0, the n×n principal matrix square root, A1/2. Alternatively, if ifail=1, contains an n×n non-principal square root of A.
3: lda Integer Input
On entry: the first dimension of the array a as declared in the (sub)program from which f01enf is called.
Constraint: ldan.
4: ifail Integer Input/Output
On entry: ifail must be set to 0, −1 or 1 to set behaviour on detection of an error; these values have no effect when no error is detected.
A value of 0 causes the printing of an error message and program execution will be halted; otherwise program execution continues. A value of −1 means that an error message is printed while a value of 1 means that it is not.
If halting is not appropriate, the value −1 or 1 is recommended. If message printing is undesirable, then the value 1 is recommended. Otherwise, the value 0 is recommended. When the value -1 or 1 is used it is essential to test the value of ifail on exit.
On exit: ifail=0 unless the routine detects an error or a warning has been flagged (see Section 6).

6 Error Indicators and Warnings

If on entry ifail=0 or −1, explanatory error messages are output on the current error message unit (as defined by x04aaf).
Errors or warnings detected by the routine:
A has a semisimple vanishing eigenvalue. A non-principal square root is returned.
A has a defective vanishing eigenvalue. The square root cannot be found in this case.
A has a negative real eigenvalue. The principal square root is not defined. f01fnf can be used to return a complex, non-principal square root.
An internal error occurred. It is likely that the routine was called incorrectly.
On entry, n=value.
Constraint: n0.
On entry, lda=value and n=value.
Constraint: ldan.
An unexpected error has been triggered by this routine. Please contact NAG.
See Section 7 in the Introduction to the NAG Library FL Interface for further information.
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
See Section 8 in the Introduction to the NAG Library FL Interface for further information.
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
See Section 9 in the Introduction to the NAG Library FL Interface for further information.

7 Accuracy

The computed square root X^ satisfies X^2=A+ΔA, where ΔAFO(ε)n3X^F2, where ε is machine precision.
For further discussion of the condition of the matrix square root see Section 6.1 of Higham (2008).

8 Parallelism and Performance

Background information to multithreading can be found in the Multithreading documentation.
f01enf is threaded by NAG for parallel execution in multithreaded implementations of the NAG Library.
f01enf makes calls to BLAS and/or LAPACK routines, which may be threaded within the vendor library used by this implementation. Consult the documentation for the vendor library for further information.
Please consult the X06 Chapter Introduction for information on how to control and interrogate the OpenMP environment used within this routine. Please also consult the Users' Note for your implementation for any additional implementation-specific information.

9 Further Comments

The cost of the algorithm is 85n3/3 floating-point operations; see Algorithm 6.7 of Higham (2008). O(2×n2) of real allocatable memory is required by the routine.
If condition number and residual bound estimates are required, then f01jdf should be used.

10 Example

This example finds the principal matrix square root of the matrix
A = ( 507 622 300 −202 237 352 126 −60 751 950 440 −286 −286 −326 −192 150 ) .  

10.1 Program Text

Program Text (f01enfe.f90)

10.2 Program Data

Program Data (f01enfe.d)

10.3 Program Results

Program Results (f01enfe.r)