Note:this function usesoptional parametersto define choices in the problem specification and in the details of the algorithm. If you wish to use default settings for all of the optional parameters, you need only read Sections 1 to 10 of this document. If, however, you wish to reset some or all of the settings please refer to Section 11 for a detailed description of the algorithm and to Section 12 for a detailed description of the specification of the optional parameters.
e05sbc is designed to search for the global minimum or maximum of an arbitrary function, subject to general nonlinear constraints, using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). Derivatives are not required, although these may be used by an accompanying local minimization function if desired. e05sbc is essentially identical to e05sac, with an expert interface and various additional arguments added; otherwise most arguments are identical. In particular, e05sac does not handle general constraints.
The function may be called by the names: e05sbc or nag_glopt_nlp_pso.
Before calling e05sbc, e05zkcmust be called with optstr set to ‘Initialize = e05sbc’. Optional parameters may also be specified by calling e05zkc before the call to e05sbc.
e05sbc uses a stochastic method based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to search for the global optimum of a nonlinear function , subject to a set of bound constraints on the variables, and optionally a set of general nonlinear constraints. In the PSO algorithm (see Section 11), a set of particles is generated in the search space, and advances each iteration to (hopefully) better positions using a heuristic velocity based upon inertia, cognitive memory and global memory. The inertia is provided by a decreasingly weighted contribution from a particles current velocity, the cognitive memory refers to the best candidate found by an individual particle and the global memory refers to the best candidate found by all the particles. This allows for a global search of the domain in question.
Further, this may be coupled with a selection of local minimization functions, which may be called during the iterations of the heuristic algorithm, the interior phase, to hasten the discovery of locally optimal points, and after the heuristic phase has completed to attempt to refine the final solution, the exterior phase. Different options may be set for the local optimizer in each phase.
Without loss of generality, the problem is assumed to be stated in the following form:
where the objective is a scalar function, is a vector of scalar constraint functions, is a vector in and the vectors are lower and upper bounds respectively for the variables and constraints. Both the objective function and the constraints may be nonlinear. Continuity of , and the functions , is not essential. For functions which are smooth and primarily unimodal, faster solutions will almost certainly be achieved by using Chapter E04 functions directly.
For functions which are smooth and multi-modal, gradient dependent local minimization functions may be coupled with e05sbc.
For multi-modal functions for which derivatives cannot be provided, particularly functions with a significant level of noise in their evaluation, e05sbc should be used either alone, or coupled with e04cbc.
For heavily constrained problems, e05sbc should either be used alone, or coupled with e04ucc provided the function and the constraints are sufficiently smooth.
The lower and upper box bounds on the variable are included to initialize the particle swarm into a finite hypervolume, although their subsequent influence on the algorithm is user determinable (see the option in Section 12). It is strongly recommended that sensible bounds are provided for all variables and constraints.
e05sbc may also be used to maximize the objective function, or to search for a feasible point satisfying the simple bounds and general constraints (see the option ).
Due to the nature of global optimization, unless a predefined target is provided, there is no definitive way of knowing when to end a computation. As such several stopping heuristics have been implemented into the algorithm. If any of these is achieved, e05sbc will exit with NW_SOLUTION_NOT_GUARANTEED, and the parameter inform will indicate which criteria was reached. See inform for more information.
In addition, you may provide your own stopping criteria through monmod, objfun and confun.
e05sac provides a simpler interface, without the inclusion of general nonlinear constraints.
Gill P E, Murray W and Wright M H (1981) Practical Optimization Academic Press
Kennedy J and Eberhart R C (1995) Particle Swarm Optimization Proceedings of the 1995 IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks 1942–1948
Koh B, George A D, Haftka R T and Fregly B J (2006) Parallel Asynchronous Particle Swarm Optimization International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering67(4) 578–595
Vaz A I and Vicente L N (2007) A Particle Swarm Pattern Search Method for Bound Constrained Global Optimization Journal of Global Optimization39(2) 197–219 Kluwer Academic Publishers
Note: for descriptions of the symbolic variables, see Section 11.
1: – IntegerInput
On entry: , the number of dimensions.
2: – IntegerInput
On entry: , the number of constraints, not including box constraints.
3: – IntegerInput
On entry: , the number of particles to be used in the swarm. Assuming all particles remain within constraints, each complete iteration will perform at least npar function evaluations. Otherwise, significantly fewer objective function evaluations may be performed.
4: – doubleOutput
On exit: the location of the best solution found, , in .
5: – double *Output
On exit: the objective value of the best solution, .
6: – doubleOutput
On exit: the constraint violations of the best solution found, . These may have been deemed to be acceptable given the tolerance and scaling of the constraints. See Sections 11 and 12.
7: – const doubleInput
8: – const doubleInput
On entry: is , the array of lower bounds, bu is , the array of upper bounds. The first ndim entries in bl and bu must contain the lower and upper simple (box) bounds of the variables respectively. These must be provided to initialize the sample population into a finite hypervolume, although their subsequent influence on the algorithm is user determinable (see the option in Section 12).
The next ncon entries must contain the lower and upper bounds for any general constraints respectively.
If for any , variable will remain locked to regardless of the option selected.
It is strongly advised that you place sensible lower and upper bounds on all variables and constraints, even if your model allows for unbounded variables or constraints.
, for ;
for at least one .
9: – doubleInput/Output
Note: the th component of the best position of the th particle, , is stored in .
On entry: if using , the initial particle positions, .
On exit: the best positions found, , by the npar particles in the swarm.
10: – doubleInput/Output
On entry: if using , objective function values, , corresponding to the npar particle locations stored in xbest.
On exit: objective function values, , corresponding to the locations returned in xbest.
11: – doubleInput/Output
Note: the th constraint violation of the th particle is stored in .
On entry: if using , the initial constraint violations, , corresponding to the npar particle locations.
On exit: the final constraint violations, , corresponding to the locations returned in xbest.
12: – function, supplied by the userExternal Function
objfun must, depending on the value of mode, calculate the objective function and/or calculate the gradient of the objective function for a -variable vector . Gradients are only required if a local minimizer has been chosen which requires gradients. See the option for more information.
On entry: indicates which functionality is required.
should be returned in objf. The value of objf on entry may be used as an upper bound for the calculation. Any expected value of that is greater than objf may be approximated by this upper bound; that is objf can remain unaltered.
only First derivatives can be evaluated and returned in vecout. Any unaltered elements of vecout will be approximated using finite differences.
only must be calculated and returned in objf, and available first derivatives can be evaluated and returned in vecout. Any unaltered elements of vecout will be approximated using finite differences.
must be calculated and returned in objf. The value of objf on entry may not be used as an upper bound.
only All first derivatives must be evaluated and returned in vecout.
only must be calculated and returned in objf, and all first derivatives must be evaluated and returned in vecout.
On exit: if the value of mode is set to be negative, e05sbc will exit as soon as possible with NE_USER_STOP and .
2: – IntegerInput
On entry: the number of dimensions.
3: – const doubleInput
On entry: , the point at which the objective function and/or its gradient are to be evaluated.
4: – double *Input/Output
On entry: the value of objf passed to objfun varies with the argument mode.
objf is an upper bound for the value of , often equal to the best constraint penalised value of found so far by a given particle if the objective function is strictly positive (see Section 11). Only objective function values less than the value of objf on entry will be used further. As such this upper bound may be used to stop further evaluation when this will only increase the objective function value above the upper bound.
vecout can contain components of the gradient of the objective function for some , or acceptable approximations. Any unaltered elements of vecout will be approximated using finite differences.
vecout must contain the gradient of the objective function for all . Approximation of the gradient is strongly discouraged, and no finite difference approximations will be performed internally (see e04dgc).
6: – IntegerInput
On entry: nstate indicates various stages of initialization throughout the function. This allows for permanent global arguments to be initialized the least number of times. For example, you may initialize a random number generator seed.
objfun is called for the very first time. You may save computational time if certain data must be read or calculated only once.
objfun is called for the first time by a NAG local minimization function. You may save computational time if certain data required for the local minimizer need only be calculated at the initial point of the local minimization.
Used in all other cases.
7: – Nag_Comm *
Pointer to structure of type Nag_Comm; the following members are relevant to objfun.
user – double *
iuser – Integer *
p – Pointer
The type Pointer will be void *. Before calling e05sbc you may allocate memory and initialize these pointers with various quantities for use by objfun when called from e05sbc (see Section 3.1.1 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface).
Note:objfun should not return floating-point NaN (Not a Number) or infinity values, since these are not handled by e05sbc. If your code inadvertently does return any NaNs or infinities, e05sbc is likely to produce unexpected results.
13: – function, supplied by the userExternal Function
confun must calculate any constraints other than the box constraints. If no constraints are required, confun may be NULLFN. For information on how a NAG local minimizer will use confun see the documentation for e04ucc.
On entry: indicates which values must be assigned during each call of confun. Only the following values need be assigned, for each value of such that :
the constraint values .
rows of the constraint Jacobian,
, for .
the constraint values and the corresponding rows of the constraint Jacobian,
, for .
On exit: may be set to a negative value if you wish to terminate the solution to the current problem. In this case e05sbc will terminate with NE_USER_STOP and as soon as possible.
2: – IntegerInput
On entry: the number of constraints, not including box bounds.
3: – IntegerInput
On entry: the number of variables.
4: – IntegerInput
On entry: the stride separating matrix column elements in the array cjac.
5: – const IntegerInput
On entry: the indices of the elements of c and/or cjac that must be evaluated by confun. If , the th element of c, corresponding to the values of the th constraint, and/or the available elements of the th row of cjac, corresponding to the derivatives of the th constraint, must be evaluated at (see argument mode).
6: – const doubleInput
On entry: , the vector of variables at which the constraint functions and/or the available elements of the constraint Jacobian are to be evaluated.
7: – doubleOutput
On exit: if and or , must contain the value of . The remaining elements of c, corresponding to the non-positive elements of needc, need not be set.
the derivative of the th constraint with respect to the th component, , is stored in , which we denote as .
On entry: the elements of cjac are set to special values which enable e05sbc to detect whether they are changed by confun.
On exit: if and or , the elements of cjac corresponding to the th row of the constraint Jacobian should contain the available elements of the vector given by
where is the partial derivative of the th constraint with respect to the th variable, evaluated at the point ; elements of cjac that remain unaltered will be approximated internally using finite differences. The remaining rows of cjac, corresponding to non-positive elements of needc, need not be set.
It must be emphasized that unassigned elements of cjac are not treated as constant; they are estimated by finite differences, at nontrivial expense. An interval for each element of is computed automatically at the start of the optimization. The automatic procedure can usually identify constant elements of cjac, which are then computed once only by finite differences.
9: – IntegerInput
On entry: nstate indicates various stages of initialization throughout the function. This allows for permanent global arguments to be initialized a minimum number of times. For example, you may initialize a random number generator seed. Note that unless the option has been set, objfun will be called before confun.
confun is called for the very first time. This argument setting allows you to save computational time if certain data must be read or calculated only once.
confun is called for the first time during a NAG local minimization function. This argument setting allows you to save computational time if certain data required for the local minimizer need only be calculated at the initial point of the local minimization.
Used in all other cases.
10: – Nag_Comm *
Pointer to structure of type Nag_Comm; the following members are relevant to confun.
user – double *
iuser – Integer *
p – Pointer
The type Pointer will be void *. Before calling e05sbc you may allocate memory and initialize these pointers with various quantities for use by confun when called from e05sbc (see Section 3.1.1 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface).
Note:confun should not return floating-point NaN (Not a Number) or infinity values, since these are not handled by e05sbc. If your code inadvertently does return any NaNs or infinities, e05sbc is likely to produce unexpected results.
confun should be tested separately before being used in conjunction with e05sbc.
14: – function, supplied by the userExternal Function
A user-specified monitoring and modification function. monmod is called once every complete iteration after a finalization check. It may be used to modify the particle locations that will be evaluated at the next iteration. This permits the incorporation of algorithmic modifications such as including additional advection heuristics and genetic mutations. monmod is only called during the main loop of the algorithm, and as such will be unaware of any further improvement from the final local minimization. If no monitoring and/or modification is required, monmod may be NULLFN.
Note: the th component of the th particle, , is stored in .
On entry: the npar particle locations, , which will currently be used during the next iteration unless altered in monmod.
On exit: the particle locations to be used during the next iteration.
5: – const doubleInput
On entry: the location, , of the best solution yet found.
6: – doubleInput
On entry: the objective value, , of the best solution yet found.
7: – const doubleInput
On entry: the constraint violations, , of the best solution yet found.
8: – const doubleInput
Note: the th component of the position of the th particle's cognitive memory, , is stored in .
On entry: the locations currently in the cognitive memory,
, for (see Section 11).
9: – const doubleInput
On entry: the objective values currently in the cognitive memory,
, for .
10: – const doubleInput
Note: the th constraint violation of the th particle's cognitive memory is stored in .
On entry: the constraint violations currently in the cognitive memory,
, for , evaluated at .
11: – const IntegerInput
On entry: iteration and function evaluation counters (see description of itt below).
12: – Nag_Comm *
Pointer to structure of type Nag_Comm; the following members are relevant to monmod.
user – double *
iuser – Integer *
p – Pointer
The type Pointer will be void *. Before calling e05sbc you may allocate memory and initialize these pointers with various quantities for use by monmod when called from e05sbc (see Section 3.1.1 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface).
13: – Integer *Input/Output
On exit: setting will cause near immediate exit from e05sbc. This value will be returned as inform with NE_USER_STOP. You need not set inform unless you wish to force an exit.
15: – IntegerCommunication Array
Note: the dimension, , of this array is dictated by the requirements of associated functions that must have been previously called. This array MUST be the same array passed as argument iopts in the previous call to e05zkc.
On entry: optional parameter array as generated and possibly modified by calls to e05zkc. The contents of iopts MUST NOT be modified directly between calls to e05sbc, e05zkcore05zlc.
16: – doubleCommunication Array
Note: the dimension, , of this array is dictated by the requirements of associated functions that must have been previously called. This array MUST be the same array passed as argument opts in the previous call to e05zkc.
On entry: optional parameter array as generated and possibly modified by calls to e05zkc. The contents of opts MUST NOT be modified directly between calls to e05sbc, e05zkcore05zlc.
17: – Nag_Comm *
The NAG communication argument (see Section 3.1.1 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface).
18: – IntegerOutput
On exit: integer iteration counters for e05sbc.
Number of complete iterations.
Number of complete iterations without improvement to the current optimum.
Number of particles converged to the current optimum.
Number of improvements to the optimum.
Number of function evaluations performed.
Number of particles reset.
Number of violated constraints at completion. Note this is always calculated using the norm and a nonzero result does not necessarily mean that the algorithm did not find a suitably constrained point with respect to the single norm used.
19: – Integer *Output
On exit: indicates which finalization criterion was reached. The possible values of inform are:
The provided objective target has been achieved. ().
The standard deviation of the location of all the particles is below the set threshold (). If the solution returned is not satisfactory, you may try setting a smaller value of , or try adjusting the options governing the repulsive phase (, ).
The total number of particles converged () to the current global optimum has reached the set limit. This is the number of particles which have moved to a distance less than from the optimum with regard to the norm. If the solution is not satisfactory, you may consider lowering the . However, this may hinder the global search capability of the algorithm.
The maximum number of iterations without improvement () has been reached, and the required number of particles () have converged to the current optimum. Increasing either of these options will allow the algorithm to continue searching for longer. Alternatively if the solution is not satisfactory, re-starting the application several times with may lead to an improved solution.
The maximum number of iterations () has been reached. If the number of iterations since improvement is small, then a better solution may be found by increasing this limit, or by using the option with corresponding exterior options. Otherwise if the solution is not satisfactory, you may try re-running the application several times with and a lower iteration limit, or adjusting the options governing the repulsive phase (, ).
The maximum allowed number of function evaluations () has been reached. As with , increasing this limit if the number of iterations without improvement is small, or decreasing this limit and running the algorithm multiple times with , may provide a superior result.
A feasible point has been found. The objective has not been minimized, although it has been evaluated at the final solutions given in xb and xbest ().
If you wish to continue from the final position gained from a previous simulation with adjusted options, you may set the option , and pass back in the returned arrays xbest, fbest, and cbest. You should either record the returned values of xb, fb and cb for comparison, as these will not be re-used by the algorithm, or include them in xbest, fbest and cbest respectively by overwriting the entries corresponding to one particle with the relevant information.
20: – NagError *Input/Output
The NAG error argument (see Section 7 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface).
e05sbc returns NE_NOERROR if and only if a finalization criterion has been reached which can guarantee success. This may only happen if:
These finalization criteria are not active using default option settings, and must be explicitly set using e05zkc if required.
e05sbc will return NW_SOLUTION_NOT_GUARANTEED if no error has been detected, and a finalization criterion has been achieved which cannot guarantee success. This does not indicate that the function has failed, merely that the returned solution cannot be guaranteed to be the true global optimum.
The value of inform should be examined to determine which finalization criterion was reached.
6Error Indicators and Warnings
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
See Section 3.1.2 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for further information.
On entry, argument had an illegal value.
On entry, for all box bounds .
Constraint: for at least one box bound .
On entry, and .
Constraint: for all .
Derivative checks indicate possible errors in the supplied derivatives.
Gradient checks may be disabled by setting .
e05sbc has been called with and . Only use NULL with .
On entry, .
On entry, .
On entry, .
Constraint: , where num_threads is the value returned by the OpenMP environment variable OMP_NUM_THREADS, or num_threads is for a serial version of this function.
An internal error has occurred in this function. Check the function call and any array sizes. If the call is correct then please contact NAG for assistance.
See Section 7.5 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for further information.
Either the option arrays have not been initialized for e05sbc, or they have become corrupted.
The option is active, however .
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
See Section 8 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for further information.
If the option has been activated, this indicates that the has been achieved to specified tolerances at a sufficiently constrained point, either during the initialization phase, or during the first two iterations of the algorithm. While this is not necessarily an error, it may occur if:
(i)The target was achieved at the first point sampled by the function. This will be the mean of the lower and upper bounds.
(ii)The target may have been achieved at a randomly generated sample point. This will always be a possibility provided that the domain under investigation contains a point with a target objective value.
(iii)If the has been set, then a sample point may have been inside the basin of attraction of a satisfactory point. If this occurs repeatedly when the function is called, it may imply that the objective is largely unimodal, and that it may be more efficient to use the function selected as the directly.
Assuming that objfun is correct, you may wish to set a better , or a stricter .
Unable to locate strictly feasible point. constraints remain violated. This exit may be suppressed using the option .
A finalization criterion was reached that cannot guarantee success.
On exit, .
If NE_NOERROR (or NW_FAST_SOLUTION) or NW_SOLUTION_NOT_GUARANTEED on exit, a criterion will have been reached depending on user selected options. As with all global optimization software, the solution achieved may not be the true global optimum. Various options allow for either greater search diversity or faster convergence to a (local) optimum (See Sections 11 and 12).
Provided the objective function and constraints are sufficiently well behaved, if a local minimizer is used in conjunction with e05sbc, then it is more likely that the final result will at least be in the near vicinity of a local optimum, and due to the global search characteristics of the particle swarm, this solution should be superior to many other local optima.
Caution should be used in accelerating the rate of convergence, as with faster convergence, less of the domain will remain searchable by the swarm, making it increasingly difficult for the algorithm to detect the basins of attraction of superior local optima. Using the options and described in Section 12 will help to overcome this, by causing the swarm to diverge away from the current optimum once no more local improvement is likely.
On successful exit with guaranteed success, NE_NOERROR (or NW_FAST_SOLUTION). This may happen if a is assigned and is reached by the algorithm at a satisfactorily constrained point. It will also occur if a constrained point is found when is set.
On successful exit without guaranteed success, NW_SOLUTION_NOT_GUARANTEED is returned. This will happen if another finalization criterion is achieved without the detection of an error.
In both cases, the value of inform provides further information as to the cause of the exit.
8Parallelism and Performance
The code for e05sbc is not directly threaded for parallel execution. In particular, none of the user-supplied functions will be called from within a parallel region generated by e05sbc.
The memory used by e05sbc is relatively static throughout. Indeed, most of the memory required is used to store the current particle locations, the cognitive particle memories, the particle velocities and the particle weights. As such, e05sbc may be used in problems with high dimension number () without the concern of computational resource exhaustion, although the probability of successfully locating the global optimum will decrease dramatically with the increase in dimensionality.
Due to the stochastic nature of the algorithm, the result will vary over multiple runs. This is particularly true if arguments and options are chosen to accelerate convergence at the expense of the global search. However, the option may be set to initialize the internal random number generator using a preset seed, which will result in identical solutions being obtained.
This example uses a particle swarm to find the global minimum of the two-dimensional Schwefel function:
subject to the constraints:
The global optimum has an objective value of , located at . Only the third constraint is active at this point.
The example demonstrates how to initialize and set the options arrays using e05zkc, how to query options using e05zlc, and finally how to search for the global optimum using e05sbc. The problem is solved twice, first using e05sbc alone, and secondly by coupling e05sbc with e04ucc as a dedicated local minimizer. In both cases the default option is used to produce repeatable solutions.
apply required behaviour for outside bounding box, (see )
true if , , were updated at this iteration
Additionally a repulsion phase can be introduced by changing from the default values of options (), () and (). If the number of static particles is denoted then the following can be inserted after the new() check in the pseudo-code above.
This section can be skipped if you wish to use the default values for all optional parameters, otherwise, the following is a list of the optional parameters available and a full description of each optional parameter is provided in Section 12.1.
For each option, we give a summary line, a description of the optional parameter and details of constraints.
The summary line contains:
a parameter value,
where the letters , and denote options that take character, integer and real values respectively;
the default value, where the symbol is a generic notation for machine precision (see X02AJC), and represents the largest representable integer value (see X02BBC).
All options accept the value ‘DEFAULT’ in order to return single options to their default states.
Keywords and character values are case insensitive, however they must be separated by at least one space.
For e05sbc the maximum length of the argument cvalue used by e05zlc is .
The cognitive advance coefficient, . When larger than the global advance coefficient, this will cause particles to be attracted toward their previous best positions. Setting will cause e05sbc to act predominantly as a local optimizer. Setting may cause the swarm to diverge, and is generally inadvisable. At least one of the global and cognitive coefficients must be nonzero.
The global advance coefficient, . When larger than the cognitive coefficient this will encourage convergence toward the best solution yet found. Values will inhibit particles overshooting the optimum. Values cause particles to fly over the optimum some of the time. Larger values can prohibit convergence. Setting will remove any attraction to the current optimum, effectively generating a Monte Carlo multi-start optimization algorithm. At least one of the global and cognitive coefficients must be nonzero.
Determines the behaviour if particles leave the domain described by the box bounds. This only affects the general PSO algorithm, and will not pass down to any NAG local minimizers chosen.
This option is only effective in those dimensions for which , .
The box bounds are ignored. The objective function is still evaluated at the new particle position.
The particle is re-initialized inside the domain. , and are not affected.
The particle position remains the same, however the objective function will not be evaluated at the next iteration. The particle will probably be advected back into the domain at the next advance due to attraction by the cognitive and global memory.
The box bounds are wrapped around an -dimensional hypersphere. As such a particle leaving through a lower bound will immediately re-enter through the corresponding upper bound and vice versa. The standard distance between particles is also modified accordingly.
The particle rests on the boundary, with the corresponding dimensional velocity set to .
Determines with respect to which norm the constraint residuals should be constructed. These are automatically scaled with respect to ncon as stated. For the set of (scaled) violations , these may be,
The norm will be used,
The norm will be used,
The square of the norm will be used,
The norm will be used,
Constraint Scale Maximum
Internally, each constraint violation is scaled with respect to the maximum violation yet achieved for that constraint. This option acts as a ceiling for this scale.
Determines whether to scale the constraints and objective function when constructing the penalty function.
Neither the constraint violations nor the objective will be scaled automatically. This should only be used if the constraints and objective are similarly scaled everywhere throughout the domain.
The maximum of the initial cognitive memories, and , will be used to scale the objective function and constraint violations respectively.
Initially, the maximum of the initial cognitive memories, and , will be used to scale the objective function and constraint violations respectively. If a significant change is detected in the behaviour of the constraints or the objective, these will be rescaled with respect to the current state of the cognitive memory.
The minimum scaled improvement in the constraint violation for a location to be immediately superior to that in memory, regardless of the objective value.
The maximum scaled violation of the constraints for which a sample particle is considered comparable to the current global optimum. Should this not be exceeded, then the current global optimum will be updated if the value of the objective function of the sample particle is superior.
Activates or deactivates the error exit associated with the inability to completely satisfy all constraints, NW_NOT_FEASIBLE. It is advisable to deactivate this option if the exit NW_NOT_FEASIBLE is preferred in such cases.
NW_NOT_FEASIBLE will be returned if any constraints are sufficiently violated at the end of the simulation.
Determines whether distances should be scaled by box widths.
When a distance is calculated between and , a scaled norm is used.
Distances are calculated as the standard norm without any rescaling.
This is the distance, between particles and the global optimum which must be reached for the particle to be considered converged, i.e., that any subsequent movement of such a particle cannot significantly alter the global optimum. Once achieved the particle is reset into the box bounds to continue searching.
The parameter defines , which is intended to be a measure of the accuracy with which the problem function can be computed. If or , the default value is used.
The value of should reflect the relative precision of ; i.e., acts as a relative precision when is large, and as an absolute precision when is small. For example, if is typically of order and the first six significant digits are known to be correct, an appropriate value for would be . In contrast, if is typically of order and the first six significant digits are known to be correct, an appropriate value for would be . The choice of can be quite complicated for badly scaled problems; see Chapter 8 of Gill et al. (1981) for a discussion of scaling techniques. The default value is appropriate for most simple functions that are computed with full accuracy. However when the accuracy of the computed function values is known to be significantly worse than full precision, the value of should be large enough so that no attempt will be made to distinguish between function values that differ by less than the error inherent in the calculation.
Local Boundary Restriction
Contracts the box boundaries used by a box constrained local minimizer to, , containing the start point , where
Smaller values of thereby restrict the size of the domain exposed to the local minimizer, possibly reducing the amount of work done by the local minimizer.
Local Interior Iterations
Local Interior Major Iterations
Local Exterior Iterations
Local Exterior Major Iterations
The maximum number of iterations or function evaluations the chosen local minimizer will perform inside (outside) the main loop if applicable. For the NAG minimizers these correspond to:
Unless set, these are functions of the parameters passed to e05sbc.
Setting will disable the local minimizer in the corresponding algorithmic region. For example, setting and will cause the algorithm to perform no local minimizations inside the main loop of the algorithm, and a local minimization with upto iterations after the main loop has been exited.
Local Interior Tolerance
Local Exterior Tolerance
This is the tolerance provided to a local minimizer in the interior (exterior) of the main loop of the algorithm.
Local Interior Minor Iterations
Local Exterior Minor Iterations
Where applicable, the secondary number of iterations the chosen local minimizer will use inside (outside) the main loop. Currently the relevant default values are:
Accurate derivatives must be provided, and will not be approximated internally. Additionally, each call to objfun during a local minimization will require either the objective to be evaluated alone, or both the objective and its gradient to be evaluated. Hence on a call to objfun, or .
Use e04ucc as the local minimizer.
This operates such that any derivatives of either the objective function or the constraint Jacobian, which you cannot supply, will be approximated internally using finite differences.
Either, the objective, objective gradient, or both may be requested during a local minimization, and as such on a call to objfun, , or .
The box bounds forwarded to this function from e05sbc will have been acted upon by . As such, the domain exposed may be greatly smaller than that provided to e05sbc.
The maximum number of complete iterations that may be performed. Once exceeded e05sbc will exit with NW_SOLUTION_NOT_GUARANTEED and .
Unless set, this adapts to the parameters passed to e05sbc.
Maximum Iterations Static
The maximum number of iterations without any improvement to the current global optimum. If exceeded e05sbc will exit with NW_SOLUTION_NOT_GUARANTEED and . This exit will be hindered by setting to larger values.
Maximum Iterations Static Particles
The minimum number of particles that must have converged to the current optimum before the function may exit due to with NW_SOLUTION_NOT_GUARANTEED and .
Maximum Particles Converged
The maximum number of particles that may converge to the current optimum. When achieved, e05sbc will exit with NW_SOLUTION_NOT_GUARANTEED and . This exit will be hindered by setting ‘Repulsion’ options, as these cause the swarm to re-expand.
Maximum Particles Reset
The maximum number of particles that may be reset after converging to the current optimum. Once achieved no further particles will be reset, and any particles within of the global optimum will continue to evolve as normal.
Maximum Variable Velocity
Along any dimension , the absolute velocity is bounded above by . Very low values will greatly increase convergence time. There is no upper limit, although larger values will allow more particles to be advected out of the box bounds, and values greater than may cause significant and potentially unrecoverable swarm divergence.
The initial scale for the objective function. This will remain fixed if is selected.
The method of (re)scaling applied to the objective function when the function detects a significant difference between the scale and the global and cognitive memory ( and ). This only has an effect when and is active.
The objective is rescaled with respect to the maximum absolute value of the objective in the cognitive and global memory.
The objective is rescaled with respect to the mean absolute value of the objective in the cognitive and global memory.
The scale remains fixed at the value set using .
Determines whether to maximize or minimize the objective function, or ignore the objective and search for a constrained point.
The objective function will be minimized.
The objective function will be maximized. This is accomplished by minimizing the negative of the objective.
The objective function will be ignored, and the algorithm will attempt to find a feasible point given the provided constraints. The objective function will be evaluated at the best point found with regards to constraint violations, and the final positions returned in xbest. The objective will be calculated at the best point found in terms of constraints only. Should a constrained point be found, e05sbc will exit with NE_NOERROR and .
if , is required.
Allows for the same random number generator seed to be used for every call to e05sbc. is recommended in general.
The internal generation of random numbers will be nonrepeatable.
The same seed will be used.
The number of iterations performed in a repulsive phase before re-contraction. This allows a re-diversified swarm to contract back toward the current optimum, allowing for a finer search of the near optimum space.
The number of iterations without any improvement to the global optimum before the algorithm begins a repulsive phase. This phase allows the particle swarm to re-expand away from the current optimum, allowing more of the domain to be investigated. The repulsive phase is automatically ended if a superior optimum is found.
The number of particles required to have converged to the current optimum before any repulsive phase may be initialized. This will prevent repulsion before a satisfactory search of the near optimum area has been performed, which may happen for large dimensional problems.
Sets the random number generator seed to be used when . If set to 0, the default seed will be used. If not, the absolute value of will be used to generate the random number generator seed.
Used to affect the initialization of the function.
The random number generators and all initialization data will be generated internally. The variables xbest, fbest and cbest need not be set.
You must supply the initial best location, function and constraint violation values xbest, fbest and cbest. This option is recommended if you already have a data set you wish to improve upon.
Swarm Standard Deviation
The target standard deviation of the particle distances from the current optimum. Once the standard deviation is below this level, e05sbc will exit with NW_SOLUTION_NOT_GUARANTEED and . This criterion will be penalized by the use of ‘Repulsion’ options, as these cause the swarm to re-expand, increasing the standard deviation of the particle distances from the best point.
Target Objective Value
Activate or deactivate the use of a target value as a finalization criterion. If active, then once the supplied target value for the objective function is found (beyond the first iteration if is active) e05sbc will exit with NE_NOERROR and . Other than checking for feasibility only (), this is the only finalization criterion that guarantees that the algorithm has been successful. If the target value was achieved at the initialization phase or first iteration and is active, e05sbc will exit with NW_FAST_SOLUTION. This option may take any real value , or the character ON/OFF as well as DEFAULT. If this option is queried using e05zlc, the current value of will be returned in rvalue, and cvalue will indicate whether this option is ON or OFF. The behaviour of the option is as follows:
Once a point is found with an objective value within the of , e05sbc will exit successfully with NE_NOERROR and .
The current value of will remain stored, however it will not be used as a finalization criterion.
The current value of stored will be used as a finalization criterion.
The stored value of will be reset to its default value (), and this finalization criterion will be deactivated.
Target Objective Safeguard
If you have given a target objective value to reach in (the value of the optional parameter ), sets your desired safeguarded termination tolerance, for when is close to zero.
Target Objective Tolerance
The optional tolerance to a user-specified target value.
Activates or deactivates the error exit associated with the target value being achieved before entry into the main loop of the algorithm, NW_FAST_SOLUTION.
No error will be returned, and the function will exit normally.
An error will be returned if the target objective is reached prematurely, and the function will exit with NW_FAST_SOLUTION.
Adjusts the level of gradient checking performed when gradients are required. Gradient checks are only performed on the first call to the chosen local minimizer if it requires gradients. There is no guarantee that the gradient check will be correct, as the finite differences used in the gradient check are themselves subject to inaccuracies.
No gradient checking will be performed.
A cheap gradient check will be performed on both the gradients corresponding to the objective through objfun and those provided via the constraint Jacobian through confun.
A more expensive gradient check will be performed on the gradients corresponding to the objective objfun. The gradients of the constraints will not be checked.
A more expensive check will be performed on the elements of cjac provided via confun. The objective gradient will not be checked.
A more expensive check will be performed on both the gradient of the objective and the constraint Jacobian.
Determines how particle weights decrease.
Weights do not decrease.
Weights decrease through compound interest as , where is the and is the current number of iterations.
Weights decrease linearly following , where is the iteration number and is the maximum number of iterations as set by .
The initial value of any particle's inertial weight, , or the minimum possible initial value if initial weights are randomized. When set, this will override or , and as such these must be set afterwards if so desired.
Determines how the initial weights are distributed.
All weights are initialized at the initial weight, , if set. If has not been set, this will be the maximum weight, .
All weights are initialized at the maximum weight, .
Weights are uniformly distributed in or if has been set.
The maximum particle weight, .
(If has been set then .)
The minimum achievable weight of any particle, . Once achieved, no further weight reduction is possible.
(If has been set then .)
Determines how particle weights are re-initialized.
Weights are re-initialized at the initial weight if set. If has not been set, this will be the maximum weight.
Weights are re-initialized at the maximum weight.
Weights are uniformly distributed in or if has been set.