# NAG FL Interfaced06aaf (dim2_​gen_​inc)

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## 1Purpose

d06aaf generates a triangular mesh of a closed polygonal region in ${ℝ}^{2}$, given a mesh of its boundary. It uses a simple incremental method.

## 2Specification

Fortran Interface
 Subroutine d06aaf ( nvb, edge, nv, nelt, coor, conn, coef,
 Integer, Intent (In) :: nvb, nvmax, nedge, edge(3,nedge), itrace, lrwork, liwork Integer, Intent (Inout) :: ifail Integer, Intent (Out) :: nv, nelt, conn(3,2*(nvmax-1)), iwork(liwork) Real (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (In) :: bspace(nvb), coef, power Real (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (Inout) :: coor(2,nvmax) Real (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (Out) :: rwork(lrwork) Logical, Intent (In) :: smooth
C Header Interface
#include <nag.h>
 void d06aaf_ (const Integer *nvb, const Integer *nvmax, const Integer *nedge, const Integer edge[], Integer *nv, Integer *nelt, double coor[], Integer conn[], const double bspace[], const logical *smooth, const double *coef, const double *power, const Integer *itrace, double rwork[], const Integer *lrwork, Integer iwork[], const Integer *liwork, Integer *ifail)
The routine may be called by the names d06aaf or nagf_mesh_dim2_gen_inc.

## 3Description

d06aaf generates the set of interior vertices using a process based on a simple incremental method. A smoothing of the mesh is optionally available. For more details about the triangulation method, consult the D06 Chapter Introduction as well as George and Borouchaki (1998).
This routine is derived from material in the MODULEF package from INRIA (Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique).

## 4References

George P L and Borouchaki H (1998) Delaunay Triangulation and Meshing: Application to Finite Elements Editions HERMES, Paris

## 5Arguments

1: $\mathbf{nvb}$Integer Input
On entry: the number of vertices in the input boundary mesh.
Constraint: $3\le {\mathbf{nvb}}\le {\mathbf{nvmax}}$.
2: $\mathbf{nvmax}$Integer Input
On entry: the maximum number of vertices in the mesh to be generated.
3: $\mathbf{nedge}$Integer Input
On entry: the number of boundary edges in the input mesh.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{nedge}}\ge 1$.
4: $\mathbf{edge}\left(3,{\mathbf{nedge}}\right)$Integer array Input
On entry: the specification of the boundary edges. ${\mathbf{edge}}\left(1,j\right)$ and ${\mathbf{edge}}\left(2,j\right)$ contain the vertex numbers of the two end points of the $j$th boundary edge. ${\mathbf{edge}}\left(3,j\right)$ is a user-supplied tag for the $j$th boundary edge and is not used by d06aaf.
Constraint: $1\le {\mathbf{edge}}\left(\mathit{i},\mathit{j}\right)\le {\mathbf{nvb}}$ and ${\mathbf{edge}}\left(1,\mathit{j}\right)\ne {\mathbf{edge}}\left(2,\mathit{j}\right)$, for $\mathit{i}=1,2$ and $\mathit{j}=1,2,\dots ,{\mathbf{nedge}}$.
5: $\mathbf{nv}$Integer Output
On exit: the total number of vertices in the output mesh (including both boundary and interior vertices). If ${\mathbf{nvb}}={\mathbf{nvmax}}$, no interior vertices will be generated and ${\mathbf{nv}}={\mathbf{nvb}}$.
6: $\mathbf{nelt}$Integer Output
On exit: the number of triangular elements in the mesh.
7: $\mathbf{coor}\left(2,{\mathbf{nvmax}}\right)$Real (Kind=nag_wp) array Input/Output
On entry: ${\mathbf{coor}}\left(1,\mathit{i}\right)$ contains the $x$ coordinate of the $\mathit{i}$th input boundary mesh vertex; while ${\mathbf{coor}}\left(2,\mathit{i}\right)$ contains the corresponding $y$ coordinate, for $\mathit{i}=1,2,\dots ,{\mathbf{nvb}}$.
On exit: ${\mathbf{coor}}\left(1,\mathit{i}\right)$ will contain the $x$ coordinate of the $\left(\mathit{i}-{\mathbf{nvb}}\right)$th generated interior mesh vertex; while ${\mathbf{coor}}\left(2,\mathit{i}\right)$ will contain the corresponding $y$ coordinate, for $\mathit{i}={\mathbf{nvb}}+1,\dots ,{\mathbf{nv}}$. The remaining elements are unchanged.
8: $\mathbf{conn}\left(3,2×\left({\mathbf{nvmax}}-1\right)\right)$Integer array Output
On exit: the connectivity of the mesh between triangles and vertices. For each triangle $\mathit{j}$, ${\mathbf{conn}}\left(\mathit{i},\mathit{j}\right)$ gives the indices of its three vertices (in anticlockwise order), for $\mathit{i}=1,2,3$ and $\mathit{j}=1,2,\dots ,{\mathbf{nelt}}$.
9: $\mathbf{bspace}\left({\mathbf{nvb}}\right)$Real (Kind=nag_wp) array Input
On entry: the desired mesh spacing (triangle diameter, which is the length of the longer edge of the triangle) near the boundary vertices.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{bspace}}\left(\mathit{i}\right)>0.0$, for $\mathit{i}=1,2,\dots ,{\mathbf{nvb}}$.
10: $\mathbf{smooth}$Logical Input
On entry: indicates whether or not mesh smoothing should be performed.
If ${\mathbf{smooth}}=\mathrm{.TRUE.}$, the smoothing is performed; otherwise no smoothing is performed.
11: $\mathbf{coef}$Real (Kind=nag_wp) Input
On entry: the coefficient in the stopping criteria for the generation of interior vertices. This argument controls the triangle density and the number of triangles generated is in $\mathit{O}\left({{\mathbf{coef}}}^{2}\right)$. The mesh will be finer if coef is greater than $0.7165$ and $0.75$ is a good value.
Suggested value: $0.75$.
12: $\mathbf{power}$Real (Kind=nag_wp) Input
On entry: controls the rate of change of the mesh size during the generation of interior vertices. The smaller the value of power, the faster the decrease in element size away from the boundary.
Suggested value: $0.25$.
Constraint: $0.1\le {\mathbf{power}}\le 10.0$.
13: $\mathbf{itrace}$Integer Input
On entry: the level of trace information required from d06aaf.
${\mathbf{itrace}}\le 0$
No output is generated.
${\mathbf{itrace}}\ge 1$
Output from the meshing solver is printed on the current advisory message unit (see x04abf). This output contains details of the vertices and triangles generated by the process.
You are advised to set ${\mathbf{itrace}}=0$, unless you are experienced with finite element mesh generation.
14: $\mathbf{rwork}\left({\mathbf{lrwork}}\right)$Real (Kind=nag_wp) array Workspace
15: $\mathbf{lrwork}$Integer Input
On entry: the dimension of the array rwork as declared in the (sub)program from which d06aaf is called.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{lrwork}}\ge {\mathbf{nvmax}}$.
16: $\mathbf{iwork}\left({\mathbf{liwork}}\right)$Integer array Workspace
17: $\mathbf{liwork}$Integer Input
On entry: the dimension of the array iwork as declared in the (sub)program from which d06aaf is called.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{liwork}}\ge 16×{\mathbf{nvmax}}+2×{\mathbf{nedge}}+\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(4×{\mathbf{nvmax}}+2,{\mathbf{nedge}}\right)-14$.
18: $\mathbf{ifail}$Integer Input/Output
On entry: ifail must be set to $0$, $-1$ or $1$ to set behaviour on detection of an error; these values have no effect when no error is detected.
A value of $0$ causes the printing of an error message and program execution will be halted; otherwise program execution continues. A value of $-1$ means that an error message is printed while a value of $1$ means that it is not.
If halting is not appropriate, the value $-1$ or $1$ is recommended. If message printing is undesirable, then the value $1$ is recommended. Otherwise, the value $0$ is recommended. When the value $-\mathbf{1}$ or $\mathbf{1}$ is used it is essential to test the value of ifail on exit.
On exit: ${\mathbf{ifail}}={\mathbf{0}}$ unless the routine detects an error or a warning has been flagged (see Section 6).

## 6Error Indicators and Warnings

If on entry ${\mathbf{ifail}}=0$ or $-1$, explanatory error messages are output on the current error message unit (as defined by x04aaf).
Errors or warnings detected by the routine:
${\mathbf{ifail}}=1$
On entry, ${\mathbf{bspace}}\left(\mathit{I}\right)=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$ and $\mathit{I}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{bspace}}\left(\mathit{I}\right)>0.0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{edge}}\left(\mathit{I},\mathit{J}\right)=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$, $\mathit{I}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$, $\mathit{J}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$ and ${\mathbf{nvb}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{edge}}\left(\mathit{I},\mathit{J}\right)\ge 1$ and ${\mathbf{edge}}\left(\mathit{I},\mathit{J}\right)\le {\mathbf{nvb}}$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{liwork}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$ and $\mathrm{LIWKMN}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{liwork}}\ge \mathrm{LIWKMN}$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{lrwork}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$ and $\mathrm{LRWKMN}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{lrwork}}\ge \mathrm{LRWKMN}$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{nedge}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{nedge}}\ge 1$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{nvb}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$ and ${\mathbf{nvmax}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: $3\le {\mathbf{nvb}}\le {\mathbf{nvmax}}$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{power}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{power}}\le 10.0$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{power}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{power}}\ge 0.1$.
On entry, the end points of the edge $\mathit{J}$ have the same index $\mathit{I}$: $\mathit{J}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$ and $\mathit{I}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
${\mathbf{ifail}}=2$
An error has occurred during the generation of the interior mesh. Check the definition of the boundary (arguments coor and edge) as well as the orientation of the boundary (especially in the case of a multiple connected component boundary). Setting ${\mathbf{itrace}}>0$ may provide more details.
${\mathbf{ifail}}=-99$
An unexpected error has been triggered by this routine. Please contact NAG.
See Section 7 in the Introduction to the NAG Library FL Interface for further information.
${\mathbf{ifail}}=-399$
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
See Section 8 in the Introduction to the NAG Library FL Interface for further information.
${\mathbf{ifail}}=-999$
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
See Section 9 in the Introduction to the NAG Library FL Interface for further information.

Not applicable.

## 8Parallelism and Performance

Background information to multithreading can be found in the Multithreading documentation.
d06aaf is not threaded in any implementation.

## 9Further Comments

The position of the internal vertices is a function of the positions of the vertices on the given boundary. A fine mesh on the boundary results in a fine mesh in the interior. The algorithm allows you to obtain a denser interior mesh by varying nvmax, bspace, coef and power. But you are advised to manipulate the last two arguments with care.
You are advised to take care to set the boundary inputs properly, especially for a boundary with multiply connected components. The orientation of the interior boundaries should be in clockwise order and opposite to that of the exterior boundary. If the boundary has only one connected component, its orientation should be anticlockwise.

## 10Example

In this example, a geometry with two holes (two interior circles inside an exterior one) is meshed using the simple incremental method (see the D06 Chapter Introduction). The exterior circle is centred at the origin with a radius $1.0$, the first interior circle is centred at the point $\left(-0.5,0.0\right)$ with a radius $0.49$, and the second one is centred at the point $\left(-0.5,0.65\right)$ with a radius $0.15$. Note that the points $\left(-1.0,0.0\right)$ and $\left(-0.5,0.5\right)$) are points of ‘near tangency’ between the exterior circle and the first and second circles.
The boundary mesh has $100$ vertices and $100$ edges (see Figure 1 in Section 10.3). Note that the particular mesh generated could be sensitive to the machine precision and, therefore, may differ from one implementation to another. Figure 2 in Section 10.3 contains the output mesh.

### 10.1Program Text

Program Text (d06aafe.f90)

### 10.2Program Data

Program Data (d06aafe.d)

### 10.3Program Results

Program Results (d06aafe.r)