NAG FL Interface
g05xef (bb_​make_​bridge_​order)

Settings help

FL Name Style:

FL Specification Language:

1 Purpose

g05xef takes a set of input times and permutes them to specify one of several predefined Brownian bridge construction orders. The permuted times can be passed to g05xaf or g05xcf to initialize the Brownian bridge generators with the chosen bridge construction order.

2 Specification

Fortran Interface
Subroutine g05xef ( bgord, t0, tend, ntimes, intime, nmove, move, times, ifail)
Integer, Intent (In) :: bgord, ntimes, nmove, move(nmove)
Integer, Intent (Inout) :: ifail
Real (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (In) :: t0, tend, intime(ntimes)
Real (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (Out) :: times(ntimes)
C Header Interface
#include <nag.h>
void  g05xef_ (const Integer *bgord, const double *t0, const double *tend, const Integer *ntimes, const double intime[], const Integer *nmove, const Integer move[], double times[], Integer *ifail)
The routine may be called by the names g05xef or nagf_rand_bb_make_bridge_order.

3 Description

The Brownian bridge algorithm (see Glasserman (2004)) is a popular method for constructing a Wiener process at a set of discrete times, t0 < t1 < t2 < ,, < tN < T , for N1. To ease notation we assume that T has the index N+1 so that T=tN+1. Inherent in the algorithm is the notion of a bridge construction order which specifies the order in which the N+2 points of the Wiener process, Xt0,XT and Xti, for i=1,2,,N, are generated. The value of Xt0 is always assumed known, and the first point to be generated is always the final time XT. Thereafter, successive points are generated iteratively by an interpolation formula, using points which were computed at previous iterations. In many cases the bridge construction order is not important, since any construction order will yield a correct process. However, in certain cases, for example when using quasi-random variates to construct the sample paths, the bridge construction order can be important.

3.1 Supported Bridge Construction Orders

g05xef accepts as input an array of time points t1 , t2 ,, tN , T at which the Wiener process is to be sampled. These time points are then permuted to construct the bridge. In all of the supported construction orders the first construction point is T which has index N+1. The remaining points are constructed by iteratively bisecting (sub-intervals of) the time indices interval [0,N+1] , as Figure 1 illustrates:
0 N+1 L 0 0 L 0 0 / 2 L 1 1 L 1 1 / 2 L 2 1 L 2 1 / 2 L 2 1 L 1 1 / 2 + ( ) L 2 1 - L 3 2 L 2 2 L 2 2 L 0 0 / 2 + ( ) L 2 2 - L 3 4 L 1 1 L 0 0 / 2 + ( ) L 1 1 - L 1 1 L 2 2 / 2 + ( ) L 1 1 - L 3 1 L 3 3
Figure 1
The time indices interval is processed in levels Li, for i=1,2,. Each level Li contains ni points L1i,,Lnii where ni2i-1. The number of points at each level depends on the value of N. The points Lji for i1 and j=1,2,ni are computed as follows: define L00=N+1 and set
Lji = J+ (K-J)/2 where J= max{Lkp:1knp, ​0p<i​ and ​Lkp<Lji} ​ and ​ K = min{Lkp:1knp, ​0p<i​ and ​Lkp>Lji}  
By convention the maximum of the empty set is taken to be to be zero. Figure 1 illustrates the algorithm when N+1 is a power of two. When N+1 is not a power of two, one must decide how to round the divisions by 2. For example, if one rounds down to the nearest integer, then one could get the following:
L 0 0 L 0 0 / 2 L 1 1 L 1 1 / 2 L 2 1 L 2 1 L 1 1 / 2 + ( ) L 2 1 - L 3 2 L 2 2 L 2 2 L 0 0 / 2 + ( ) L 2 2 - L 1 1 L 0 0 / 2 + ( ) L 1 1 - L 1 1 L 2 2 / 2 + ( ) L 1 1 - L 3 1 L 3 3 0 N+1
Figure 2
From the series of bisections outlined above, two ways of ordering the time indices Lji are supported. In both cases, levels are always processed from coarsest to finest (i.e., increasing i). Within a level, the time indices can either be processed left to right (i.e., increasing j) or right to left (i.e., decreasing j). For example, when processing left to right, the sequence of time indices could be generated as:
N+1 L11 L12 L22 L13 L23 L33 L43  
while when processing right to left, the same sequence would be generated as:
N+1 L11 L22 L12 L43 L33 L23 L13  
g05xef, therefore, offers four bridge construction methods; processing either left to right or right to left, with rounding either up or down. Which method is used is controlled by the bgord argument. For example, on the set of times
t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 t9 t10 t11 t12 T  
the Brownian bridge would be constructed in the following orders:
The four construction methods described above can be further modified through the use of the input array move. To see the effect of this argument, suppose that an array A holds the output of g05xef when nmove=0 (i.e., the bridge construction order as specified by bgord only). Let
B = {tj:j=move(i),i=1,2,,nmove}  
be the array of all times identified by move, and let C be the array A with all the elements in B removed, i.e.,
C = {A(i):A(i)B(j),i=1,2,,ntimes,j=1,2,,nmove} .  
Then the output of g05xef when nmove>0 is given by
B(1) B(2) B(nmove) C(1) C(2) C(ntimes-nmove)  
When the Brownian bridge is used with quasi-random variates, this functionality can be used to allow specific sections of the bridge to be constructed using the lowest dimensions of the quasi-random points.

4 References

Glasserman P (2004) Monte Carlo Methods in Financial Engineering Springer

5 Arguments

1: bgord Integer Input
On entry: the bridge construction order to use.
Constraint: bgord=1, 2, 3 or 4.
2: t0 Real (Kind=nag_wp) Input
On entry: t0, the start value of the time interval on which the Wiener process is to be constructed.
3: tend Real (Kind=nag_wp) Input
On entry: T, the largest time at which the Wiener process is to be constructed.
4: ntimes Integer Input
On entry: N, the number of time points in the Wiener process, excluding t0 and T.
Constraint: ntimes1.
5: intime(ntimes) Real (Kind=nag_wp) array Input
On entry: the time points, t1,t2,,tN, at which the Wiener process is to be constructed. Note that the final time T is not included in this array.
  • t0<intime(i) and intime(i)<intime(i+1), for i=1,2,,ntimes-1;
  • intime(ntimes)<tend.
6: nmove Integer Input
On entry: the number of elements in the array move.
Constraint: 0nmoventimes.
7: move(nmove) Integer array Input
On entry: the indices of the entries in intime which should be moved to the front of the times array, with move(j)=i setting the jth element of times to ti. Note that i ranges from 1 to ntimes. When nmove=0, move is not referenced.
Constraint: 1move(j)ntimes, for j=1,2,,nmove.
The elements of move must be unique.
8: times(ntimes) Real (Kind=nag_wp) array Output
On exit: the output bridge construction order. This should be passed to g05xaf or g05xcf.
9: ifail Integer Input/Output
On entry: ifail must be set to 0, −1 or 1 to set behaviour on detection of an error; these values have no effect when no error is detected.
A value of 0 causes the printing of an error message and program execution will be halted; otherwise program execution continues. A value of −1 means that an error message is printed while a value of 1 means that it is not.
If halting is not appropriate, the value −1 or 1 is recommended. If message printing is undesirable, then the value 1 is recommended. Otherwise, the value 0 is recommended. When the value -1 or 1 is used it is essential to test the value of ifail on exit.
On exit: ifail=0 unless the routine detects an error or a warning has been flagged (see Section 6).

6 Error Indicators and Warnings

If on entry ifail=0 or −1, explanatory error messages are output on the current error message unit (as defined by x04aaf).
Errors or warnings detected by the routine:
On entry, bgord=value.
Constraint: bgord=1, 2, 3 or 4
On entry, ntimes=value.
Constraint: ntimes1.
On entry, nmove=value and ntimes=value.
Constraint: 0nmoventimes.
On entry, intime(value)=value and intime(value)=value.
Constraint: the elements in intime must be in increasing order.
On entry, intime(1)=value and t0=value.
Constraint: intime(1)>t0.
On entry, ntimes=value, intime(ntimes)=value and tend=value.
Constraint: intime(ntimes)<tend.
On entry, move(value)=value.
Constraint: move(i)1 for all i.
On entry, move(value)=value and ntimes=value.
Constraint: move(i)ntimes for all i.
On entry, move(value) and move(value) both equal value.
Constraint: all elements in move must be unique.
An unexpected error has been triggered by this routine. Please contact NAG.
See Section 7 in the Introduction to the NAG Library FL Interface for further information.
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
See Section 8 in the Introduction to the NAG Library FL Interface for further information.
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
See Section 9 in the Introduction to the NAG Library FL Interface for further information.

7 Accuracy

Not applicable.

8 Parallelism and Performance

Background information to multithreading can be found in the Multithreading documentation.
g05xef is threaded by NAG for parallel execution in multithreaded implementations of the NAG Library.
Please consult the X06 Chapter Introduction for information on how to control and interrogate the OpenMP environment used within this routine. Please also consult the Users' Note for your implementation for any additional implementation-specific information.

9 Further Comments


10 Example

This example calls g05xef, g05xaf and g05xbf to generate two sample paths of a three-dimensional free Wiener process. The array move is used to ensure that a certain part of the sample path is always constructed using the lowest dimensions of the input quasi-random points. For further details on using quasi-random points with the Brownian bridge algorithm, please see Section 2.6 in the G05 Chapter Introduction.

10.1 Program Text

Program Text (g05xefe.f90)

10.2 Program Data


10.3 Program Results

Program Results (g05xefe.r)