f04caf computes the solution to a complex system of linear equations , where is an matrix and and are matrices. An estimate of the condition number of and an error bound for the computed solution are also returned.
The routine may be called by the names f04caf or nagf_linsys_complex_square_solve.
The decomposition with partial pivoting and row interchanges is used to factor as , where is a permutation matrix, is unit lower triangular, and is upper triangular. The factored form of is then used to solve the system of equations .
Anderson E, Bai Z, Bischof C, Blackford S, Demmel J, Dongarra J J, Du Croz J J, Greenbaum A, Hammarling S, McKenney A and Sorensen D (1999) LAPACK Users' Guide (3rd Edition) SIAM, Philadelphia https://www.netlib.org/lapack/lug
Higham N J (2002) Accuracy and Stability of Numerical Algorithms (2nd Edition) SIAM, Philadelphia
1: – IntegerInput
On entry: the number of linear equations , i.e., the order of the matrix .
2: – IntegerInput
On entry: the number of right-hand sides , i.e., the number of columns of the matrix .
3: – Complex (Kind=nag_wp) arrayInput/Output
Note: the second dimension of the array a
must be at least
On entry: the coefficient matrix .
On exit: if , the factors and from the factorization . The unit diagonal elements of are not stored.
4: – IntegerInput
On entry: the first dimension of the array a as declared in the (sub)program from which f04caf is called.
5: – Integer arrayOutput
On exit: if , the pivot indices that define the permutation matrix ; at the th step row of the matrix was interchanged with row . indicates a row interchange was not required.
6: – Complex (Kind=nag_wp) arrayInput/Output
Note: the second dimension of the array b
must be at least
On entry: the matrix of right-hand sides .
On exit: if or , the solution matrix .
7: – IntegerInput
On entry: the first dimension of the array b as declared in the (sub)program from which f04caf is called.
8: – Real (Kind=nag_wp)Output
On exit: if no constraints are violated, an estimate of the reciprocal of the condition number of the matrix , computed as .
9: – Real (Kind=nag_wp)Output
On exit: if or , an estimate of the forward error bound for a computed solution , such that , where is a column of the computed solution returned in the array b and is the corresponding column of the exact solution . If rcond is less than machine precision, errbnd is returned as unity.
10: – IntegerInput/Output
On entry: ifail must be set to , or to set behaviour on detection of an error; these values have no effect when no error is detected.
A value of causes the printing of an error message and program execution will be halted; otherwise program execution continues. A value of means that an error message is printed while a value of means that it is not.
If halting is not appropriate, the value or is recommended. If message printing is undesirable, then the value is recommended. Otherwise, the value is recommended. When the value or is used it is essential to test the value of ifail on exit.
On exit: unless the routine detects an error or a warning has been flagged (see Section 6).
6Error Indicators and Warnings
If on entry or , explanatory error messages are output on the current error message unit (as defined by x04aaf).
Errors or warnings detected by the routine:
Diagonal element of the upper triangular factor is zero. The factorization has been completed, but the solution could not be computed.
A solution has been computed, but rcond is less than machine precision so that the matrix is numerically singular.
On entry, .
On entry, .
On entry, and .
On entry, and .
An unexpected error has been triggered by this routine. Please
See Section 7 in the Introduction to the NAG Library FL Interface for further information.
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
See Section 8 in the Introduction to the NAG Library FL Interface for further information.
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
The complex allocatable memory required is , and the real allocatable memory required is . In this case the factorization and the solution have been computed, but rcond and errbnd have not been computed.
See Section 9 in the Introduction to the NAG Library FL Interface for further information.
The computed solution for a single right-hand side, , satisfies an equation of the form
and is the machine precision. An approximate error bound for the computed solution is given by
where , the condition number of with respect to the solution of the linear equations. f04caf uses the approximation to estimate errbnd. See Section 4.4 of Anderson et al. (1999) for further details.
8Parallelism and Performance
Background information to multithreading can be found in the Multithreading documentation.
f04caf is threaded by NAG for parallel execution in multithreaded implementations of the NAG Library.
f04caf makes calls to BLAS and/or LAPACK routines, which may be threaded within the vendor library used by this implementation. Consult the documentation for the vendor library for further information.
Please consult the X06 Chapter Introduction for information on how to control and interrogate the OpenMP environment used within this routine. Please also consult the Users' Note for your implementation for any additional implementation-specific information.
The total number of floating-point operations required to solve the equations is proportional to . The condition number estimation typically requires between four and five solves and never more than eleven solves, following the factorization.
In practice the condition number estimator is very reliable, but it can underestimate the true condition number; see Section 15.3 of Higham (2002) for further details.