# NAG CL Interfacee02ajc (dim1_​cheb_​integ)

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## 1Purpose

e02ajc determines the coefficients in the Chebyshev series representation of the indefinite integral of a polynomial given in Chebyshev series form.

## 2Specification

 #include
 void e02ajc (Integer n, double xmin, double xmax, const double a[], Integer ia1, double qatm1, double aintc[], Integer iaint1, NagError *fail)
The function may be called by the names: e02ajc, nag_fit_dim1_cheb_integ or nag_1d_cheb_intg.

## 3Description

e02ajc forms the polynomial which is the indefinite integral of a given polynomial. Both the original polynomial and its integral are represented in Chebyshev series form. If supplied with the coefficients ${a}_{i}$, for $\mathit{i}=0,1,\dots ,n$, of a polynomial $p\left(x\right)$ of degree $n$, where
 $p(x)=12a0+a1T1(x¯)+⋯+anTn(x¯),$
the function returns the coefficients ${a}_{i}^{\prime }$, for $\mathit{i}=0,1,\dots ,n+1$, of the polynomial $q\left(x\right)$ of degree $n+1$, where
 $q(x)=12a0′+a1′T1(x¯)+⋯+an+1′Tn+1(x¯),$
and
 $q(x)=∫p(x)dx.$
Here ${T}_{j}\left(\overline{x}\right)$ denotes the Chebyshev polynomial of the first kind of degree $j$ with argument $\overline{x}$. It is assumed that the normalized variable $\overline{x}$ in the interval $\left[-1,+1\right]$ was obtained from your original variable $x$ in the interval $\left[{x}_{\mathrm{min}},{x}_{\mathrm{max}}\right]$ by the linear transformation
 $x¯=2x-(xmax+xmin) xmax-xmin$
and that you require the integral to be with respect to the variable $x$. If the integral with respect to $\overline{x}$ is required, set ${x}_{\mathrm{max}}=1$ and ${x}_{\mathrm{min}}=-1$.
Values of the integral can subsequently be computed, from the coefficients obtained, by using e02akc.
The method employed is that of Chebyshev series (see Chapter 8 of Modern Computing Methods (1961)), modified for integrating with respect to $x$. Initially taking ${a}_{n+1}={a}_{n+2}=0$, the function forms successively
 $ai′=ai-1-ai+1 2i ×xmax-xmin2, i=n+1,n,…,1.$
The constant coefficient ${a}_{0}^{\prime }$ is chosen so that $q\left(x\right)$ is equal to a specified value, qatm1, at the lower end point of the interval on which it is defined, i.e., $\overline{x}=-1$, which corresponds to $x={x}_{\mathrm{min}}$.
Modern Computing Methods (1961) Chebyshev-series NPL Notes on Applied Science 16 (2nd Edition) HMSO

## 5Arguments

1: $\mathbf{n}$Integer Input
On entry: $n$, the degree of the given polynomial $p\left(x\right)$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
2: $\mathbf{xmin}$double Input
3: $\mathbf{xmax}$double Input
On entry: the lower and upper end points respectively of the interval $\left[{x}_{\mathrm{min}},{x}_{\mathrm{max}}\right]$. The Chebyshev series representation is in terms of the normalized variable $\overline{x}$, where
 $x¯=2x-(xmax+xmin) xmax-xmin .$
Constraint: ${\mathbf{xmax}}>{\mathbf{xmin}}$.
4: $\mathbf{a}\left[\mathit{dim}\right]$const double Input
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array a must be at least $\left(1+\left(1-1\right)×{\mathbf{ia1}}1+{\mathbf{n}}×{\mathbf{ia1}}\right)$.
On entry: the Chebyshev coefficients of the polynomial $p\left(x\right)$. Specifically, element $\mathit{i}×{\mathbf{ia1}}$ of a must contain the coefficient ${a}_{\mathit{i}}$, for $\mathit{i}=0,1,\dots ,n$. Only these $n+1$ elements will be accessed.
5: $\mathbf{ia1}$Integer Input
On entry: the index increment of a. Most frequently the Chebyshev coefficients are stored in adjacent elements of a, and ia1 must be set to $1$. However, if for example, they are stored in ${\mathbf{a}}\left[0\right],{\mathbf{a}}\left[3\right],{\mathbf{a}}\left[6\right],\dots \text{}$, the value of ia1 must be $3$. See also Section 9.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{ia1}}\ge 1$.
6: $\mathbf{qatm1}$double Input
On entry: the value that the integrated polynomial is required to have at the lower end point of its interval of definition, i.e., at $\overline{x}=-1$ which corresponds to $x={x}_{\mathrm{min}}$. Thus, qatm1 is a constant of integration and will normally be set to zero by you.
7: $\mathbf{aintc}\left[\mathit{dim}\right]$double Output
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array aintc must be at least $\left(1+\left(1\right)×{\mathbf{iaint1}}1+\left({\mathbf{n}}+1\right)×{\mathbf{iaint1}}\right)$.
On exit: the Chebyshev coefficients of the integral $q\left(x\right)$. (The integration is with respect to the variable $x$, and the constant coefficient is chosen so that $q\left({x}_{\mathrm{min}}\right)$ equals qatm1). Specifically, element $i×{\mathbf{iaint1}}$ of aintc contains the coefficient ${a}_{\mathit{i}}^{\prime }$, for $\mathit{i}=0,1,\dots ,n+1$.
8: $\mathbf{iaint1}$Integer Input
On entry: the index increment of aintc. Most frequently the Chebyshev coefficients are required in adjacent elements of aintc, and iaint1 must be set to $1$. However, if, for example, they are to be stored in ${\mathbf{aintc}}\left[0\right],{\mathbf{aintc}}\left[3\right],{\mathbf{aintc}}\left[6\right],\dots \text{}$, the value of iaint1 must be $3$. See also Section 9.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{iaint1}}\ge 1$.
9: $\mathbf{fail}$NagError * Input/Output
The NAG error argument (see Section 7 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface).

## 6Error Indicators and Warnings

NE_ALLOC_FAIL
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
See Section 3.1.2 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for further information.
On entry, argument $⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$ had an illegal value.
NE_INT
On entry, ${\mathbf{ia1}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{ia1}}\ge 1$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{iaint1}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{iaint1}}\ge 1$.
On entry, ${\mathbf{n}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
NE_INTERNAL_ERROR
An internal error has occurred in this function. Check the function call and any array sizes. If the call is correct then please contact NAG for assistance.
See Section 7.5 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for further information.
NE_NO_LICENCE
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
See Section 8 in the Introduction to the NAG Library CL Interface for further information.
NE_REAL_2
On entry, ${\mathbf{xmax}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$ and ${\mathbf{xmin}}=⟨\mathit{\text{value}}⟩$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{xmax}}>{\mathbf{xmin}}$.

## 7Accuracy

In general there is a gain in precision in numerical integration, in this case associated with the division by $2i$ in the formula quoted in Section 3.

## 8Parallelism and Performance

e02ajc is not threaded in any implementation.

The time taken is approximately proportional to $n+1$.
The increments ia1, iaint1 are included as arguments to give a degree of flexibility which, for example, allows a polynomial in two variables to be integrated with respect to either variable without rearranging the coefficients.

## 10Example

Suppose a polynomial has been computed in Chebyshev series form to fit data over the interval $\left[-0.5,2.5\right]$. The following program evaluates the integral of the polynomial from $0.0$ to $2.0$. (For the purpose of this example, xmin, xmax and the Chebyshev coefficients are simply supplied . Normally a program would read in or generate data and compute the fitted polynomial).

### 10.1Program Text

Program Text (e02ajce.c)

None.

### 10.3Program Results

Program Results (e02ajce.r)