NAG Library Routine Document

f01fmf  (complex_gen_matrix_fun_usd)


    1  Purpose
    7  Accuracy


f01fmf computes the matrix function, fA, of a complex n by n matrix A, using analytical derivatives of f you have supplied.


Fortran Interface
Subroutine f01fmf ( n, a, lda, f, iuser, ruser, iflag, ifail)
Integer, Intent (In):: n, lda
Integer, Intent (Inout):: iuser(*), ifail
Integer, Intent (Out):: iflag
Real (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (Inout):: ruser(*)
Complex (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (Inout):: a(lda,*)
External:: f
C Header Interface
#include nagmk26.h
void  f01fmf_ ( const Integer *n, Complex a[], const Integer *lda,
void (NAG_CALL *f)( const Integer *m, Integer *iflag, const Integer *nz, const Complex z[], Complex fz[], Integer iuser[], double ruser[]),
Integer iuser[], double ruser[], Integer *iflag, Integer *ifail)


fA is computed using the Schur–Parlett algorithm described in Higham (2008) and Davies and Higham (2003).
The scalar function f, and the derivatives of f, are returned by the subroutine f which, given an integer m, should evaluate fmzi at a number of points zi, for i=1,2,,nz, on the complex plane. f01fmf is therefore appropriate for functions that can be evaluated on the complex plane and whose derivatives, of arbitrary order, can also be evaluated on the complex plane.


Davies P I and Higham N J (2003) A Schur–Parlett algorithm for computing matrix functions. SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 25(2) 464–485
Higham N J (2008) Functions of Matrices: Theory and Computation SIAM, Philadelphia, PA, USA


1:     n – IntegerInput
On entry: n, the order of the matrix A.
Constraint: n0.
2:     alda* – Complex (Kind=nag_wp) arrayInput/Output
Note: the second dimension of the array a must be at least n.
On entry: the n by n matrix A.
On exit: the n by n matrix, fA.
3:     lda – IntegerInput
On entry: the first dimension of the array a as declared in the (sub)program from which f01fmf is called.
Constraint: ldan.
4:     f – Subroutine, supplied by the user.External Procedure
Given an integer m, the subroutine f evaluates fmzi at a number of points zi.
The specification of f is:
Fortran Interface
Subroutine f ( m, iflag, nz, z, fz, iuser, ruser)
Integer, Intent (In):: m, nz
Integer, Intent (Inout):: iflag, iuser(*)
Real (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (Inout):: ruser(*)
Complex (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (In):: z(nz)
Complex (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (Out):: fz(nz)
C Header Interface
#include nagmk26.h
void  f ( const Integer *m, Integer *iflag, const Integer *nz, const Complex z[], Complex fz[], Integer iuser[], double ruser[])
1:     m – IntegerInput
On entry: the order, m, of the derivative required.
If m=0, fzi should be returned. For m>0, fmzi should be returned.
2:     iflag – IntegerInput/Output
On entry: iflag will be zero.
On exit: iflag should either be unchanged from its entry value of zero, or may be set nonzero to indicate that there is a problem in evaluating the function fz; for instance fzi may not be defined for a particular zi. If iflag is returned as nonzero then f01fmf will terminate the computation, with ifail=2.
3:     nz – IntegerInput
On entry: nz, the number of function or derivative values required.
4:     znz – Complex (Kind=nag_wp) arrayInput
On entry: the nz points z1,z2,,znz at which the function f is to be evaluated.
5:     fznz – Complex (Kind=nag_wp) arrayOutput
On exit: the nz function or derivative values. fzi should return the value fmzi, for i=1,2,,nz.
6:     iuser* – Integer arrayUser Workspace
7:     ruser* – Real (Kind=nag_wp) arrayUser Workspace
f is called with the arguments iuser and ruser as supplied to f01fmf. You should use the arrays iuser and ruser to supply information to f.
f must either be a module subprogram USEd by, or declared as EXTERNAL in, the (sub)program from which f01fmf is called. Arguments denoted as Input must not be changed by this procedure.
Note: f should not return floating-point NaN (Not a Number) or infinity values, since these are not handled by f01fmf. If your code inadvertently does return any NaNs or infinities, f01fmf is likely to produce unexpected results.
5:     iuser* – Integer arrayUser Workspace
6:     ruser* – Real (Kind=nag_wp) arrayUser Workspace
iuser and ruser are not used by f01fmf, but are passed directly to f and may be used to pass information to this routine.
7:     iflag – IntegerOutput
On exit: iflag=0, unless iflag has been set nonzero inside f, in which case iflag will be the value set and ifail will be set to ifail=2.
8:     ifail – IntegerInput/Output
On entry: ifail must be set to 0, -1​ or ​1. If you are unfamiliar with this argument you should refer to Section 3.4 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for details.
For environments where it might be inappropriate to halt program execution when an error is detected, the value -1​ or ​1 is recommended. If the output of error messages is undesirable, then the value 1 is recommended. Otherwise, if you are not familiar with this argument, the recommended value is 0. When the value -1​ or ​1 is used it is essential to test the value of ifail on exit.
On exit: ifail=0 unless the routine detects an error or a warning has been flagged (see Section 6).

Error Indicators and Warnings

If on entry ifail=0 or -1, explanatory error messages are output on the current error message unit (as defined by x04aaf).
Errors or warnings detected by the routine:
A Taylor series failed to converge.
iflag has been set nonzero by the user.
There was an error whilst reordering the Schur form of A.
Note:  this failure should not occur and suggests that the routine has been called incorrectly.
The routine was unable to compute the Schur decomposition of A.
Note:  this failure should not occur and suggests that the routine has been called incorrectly.
An unexpected internal error occurred. Please contact NAG.
Input argument number value is invalid.
On entry, argument lda is invalid.
Constraint: ldan.
An unexpected error has been triggered by this routine. Please contact NAG.
See Section 3.9 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
See Section 3.8 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
See Section 3.7 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.


For a normal matrix A (for which AH A=AAH), the Schur decomposition is diagonal and the algorithm reduces to evaluating f at the eigenvalues of A and then constructing fA using the Schur vectors. This should give a very accurate result. In general, however, no error bounds are available for the algorithm. See Section 9.4 of Higham (2008) for further discussion of the Schur–Parlett algorithm.

Parallelism and Performance

f01fmf is threaded by NAG for parallel execution in multithreaded implementations of the NAG Library. In these implementations, this routine may make calls to the user-supplied functions from within an OpenMP parallel region. Thus OpenMP directives within the user functions can only be used if you are compiling the user-supplied function and linking the executable in accordance with the instructions in the Users' Note for your implementation. The user workspace arrays iuser and ruser are classified as OpenMP shared memory and use of iuser and ruser has to take account of this in order to preserve thread safety whenever information is written back to either of these arrays. If at all possible, it is recommended that these arrays are only used to supply read-only data to the user functions when a multithreaded implementation is being used.
f01fmf makes calls to BLAS and/or LAPACK routines, which may be threaded within the vendor library used by this implementation. Consult the documentation for the vendor library for further information.
Please consult the X06 Chapter Introduction for information on how to control and interrogate the OpenMP environment used within this routine. Please also consult the Users' Note for your implementation for any additional implementation-specific information.

Further Comments

Up to 6n2 of complex allocatable memory is required.
The cost of the Schur–Parlett algorithm depends on the spectrum of A, but is roughly between 28n3 and n4/3 floating-point operations. There is an additional cost in evaluating f and its derivatives. If the derivatives of f are not known analytically, then f01flf can be used to evaluate fA using numerical differentiation. If A is complex Hermitian then it is recommended that f01fff be used as it is more efficient and, in general, more accurate than f01fmf.
Note that f must be analytic in the region of the complex plane containing the spectrum of A.
For further information on matrix functions, see Higham (2008).
If estimates of the condition number of the matrix function are required then f01kcf should be used.
f01emf can be used to find the matrix function fA for a real matrix A.


This example finds the e3A where
A= 1.0+0.0i 0.0+0.0i 1.0+0.0i 0.0+2.0i 0.0+1.0i 1.0+0.0i -1.0+0.0i 1.0+0.0i -1.0+0.0i 0.0+1.0i 0.0+1.0i 0.0+1.0i 1.0+1.0i 0.0+2.0i -1.0+0.0i 0.0+1.0i .  

Program Text

Program Text (f01fmfe.f90)

Program Data

Program Data (f01fmfe.d)

Program Results

Program Results (f01fmfe.r)

© The Numerical Algorithms Group Ltd, Oxford, UK. 2017