NAG Library Function Document

nag_matop_complex_tri_matrix_sqrt (f01fpc)


    1  Purpose
    7  Accuracy


nag_matop_complex_tri_matrix_sqrt (f01fpc) computes the principal matrix square root, A1/2, of a complex upper triangular n by n matrix A.


#include <nag.h>
#include <nagf01.h>
void  nag_matop_complex_tri_matrix_sqrt (Integer n, Complex a[], Integer pda, NagError *fail)


A square root of a matrix A is a solution X to the equation X2=A. A nonsingular matrix has multiple square roots. For a matrix with no eigenvalues on the closed negative real line, the principal square root, denoted by A1/2, is the unique square root whose eigenvalues lie in the open right half-plane.
nag_matop_complex_tri_matrix_sqrt (f01fpc) computes A1/2, where A is an upper triangular matrix. A1/2 is also upper triangular.
The algorithm used by nag_matop_complex_tri_matrix_sqrt (f01fpc) is described in Björck and Hammarling (1983). In addition a blocking scheme described in Deadman et al. (2013) is used.


Björck Å and Hammarling S (1983) A Schur method for the square root of a matrix Linear Algebra Appl. 52/53 127–140
Deadman E, Higham N J and Ralha R (2013) Blocked Schur Algorithms for Computing the Matrix Square Root Applied Parallel and Scientific Computing: 11th International Conference, (PARA 2012, Helsinki, Finland) P. Manninen and P. Öster, Eds Lecture Notes in Computer Science 7782 171–181 Springer–Verlag
Higham N J (2008) Functions of Matrices: Theory and Computation SIAM, Philadelphia, PA, USA


1:     n IntegerInput
On entry: n, the order of the matrix A.
Constraint: n0.
2:     a[dim] ComplexInput/Output
Note: the dimension, dim, of the array a must be at least pda×n.
The i,jth element of the matrix A is stored in a[j-1×pda+i-1].
On entry: the n by n upper triangular matrix A.
On exit: contains, if fail.code= NE_NOERROR, the n by n principal matrix square root, A1/2. Alternatively, if fail.code= NE_EIGENVALUES, contains an n by n non-principal square root of A.
3:     pda IntegerInput
On entry: the stride separating matrix row elements in the array a.
Constraint: pdan.
4:     fail NagError *Input/Output
The NAG error argument (see Section 3.7 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation).

Error Indicators and Warnings

Dynamic memory allocation failed.
See Section in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
On entry, argument value had an illegal value.
A has negative or semisimple, vanishing eigenvalues. The principal square root is not defined in this case; a non-principal square root is returned.
On entry, n=value.
Constraint: n0.
On entry, pda=value and n=value.
Constraint: pdan.
An internal error has occurred in this function. Check the function call and any array sizes. If the call is correct then please contact NAG for assistance.
See Section 2.7.6 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
See Section 2.7.5 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
A has a defective vanishing eigenvalue. The square root cannot be found in this case.


The computed square root X^ satisfies X^2=A+ΔA, where ΔAOεnX^2, where ε is machine precision. The order of the change in A is to be interpreted elementwise.

Parallelism and Performance

nag_matop_complex_tri_matrix_sqrt (f01fpc) is threaded by NAG for parallel execution in multithreaded implementations of the NAG Library.
nag_matop_complex_tri_matrix_sqrt (f01fpc) makes calls to BLAS and/or LAPACK routines, which may be threaded within the vendor library used by this implementation. Consult the documentation for the vendor library for further information.
Please consult the x06 Chapter Introduction for information on how to control and interrogate the OpenMP environment used within this function. Please also consult the Users' Note for your implementation for any additional implementation-specific information.

Further Comments

The cost of the algorithm is n3/3 complex floating-point operations; see Algorithm 6.3 in Higham (2008). O2×n2 of complex allocatable memory is required by the function.
If A is a full matrix, then nag_matop_complex_gen_matrix_sqrt (f01fnc) should be used to compute the principal square root.
If condition number and residual bound estimates are required, then nag_matop_complex_gen_matrix_cond_sqrt (f01kdc) should be used. For further discussion of the condition of the matrix square root see Section 6.1 of Higham (2008).


This example finds the principal matrix square root of the matrix
A = 2i 14+02i 12+03i 6+04i 0i+0 -5+12i 6+18i 9+16i 0i+0 0i+00 3-04i 16-04i 0i+0 0i+00 0i+00 4i+00 .  

Program Text

Program Text (f01fpce.c)

Program Data

Program Data (f01fpce.d)

Program Results

Program Results (f01fpce.r)

© The Numerical Algorithms Group Ltd, Oxford, UK. 2017