G05 Chapter Contents
G05 Chapter Introduction
NAG Library Manual

# NAG Library Routine DocumentG05SNF

Note:  before using this routine, please read the Users' Note for your implementation to check the interpretation of bold italicised terms and other implementation-dependent details.

## 1  Purpose

G05SNF generates a vector of pseudorandom numbers taken from a Student's $t$-distribution with $\nu$ degrees of freedom.

## 2  Specification

 SUBROUTINE G05SNF ( N, DF, STATE, X, IFAIL)
 INTEGER N, DF, STATE(*), IFAIL REAL (KIND=nag_wp) X(N)

## 3  Description

The distribution has PDF (probability density function)
 $fx= ν-12 ! 12ν-1!πν 1+x2ν 12ν+1 .$
G05SNF calculates the values
 $yiνzi, i= 1,…,n$
where the ${y}_{i}$ are generated by G05SKF from a Normal distribution with mean $0$ and variance $1.0$, and the ${z}_{i}$ are generated by G05SJF from a gamma distribution with parameters $\frac{1}{2}\nu$ and $2$ (i.e., from a ${\chi }^{2}$-distribution with $\nu$ degrees of freedom).
One of the initialization routines G05KFF (for a repeatable sequence if computed sequentially) or G05KGF (for a non-repeatable sequence) must be called prior to the first call to G05SNF.
Knuth D E (1981) The Art of Computer Programming (Volume 2) (2nd Edition) Addison–Wesley

## 5  Parameters

1:     N – INTEGERInput
On entry: $n$, the number of pseudorandom numbers to be generated.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{N}}\ge 0$.
2:     DF – INTEGERInput
On entry: $\nu$, the number of degrees of freedom of the distribution.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{DF}}\ge 1$.
3:     STATE($*$) – INTEGER arrayCommunication Array
Note: the actual argument supplied must be the array STATE supplied to the initialization routines G05KFF or G05KGF.
On entry: contains information on the selected base generator and its current state.
On exit: contains updated information on the state of the generator.
4:     X(N) – REAL (KIND=nag_wp) arrayOutput
On exit: the $n$ pseudorandom numbers from the specified Student's $t$-distribution.
5:     IFAIL – INTEGERInput/Output
On entry: IFAIL must be set to $0$, $-1\text{​ or ​}1$. If you are unfamiliar with this parameter you should refer to Section 3.3 in the Essential Introduction for details.
For environments where it might be inappropriate to halt program execution when an error is detected, the value $-1\text{​ or ​}1$ is recommended. If the output of error messages is undesirable, then the value $1$ is recommended. Otherwise, if you are not familiar with this parameter, the recommended value is $0$. When the value $-\mathbf{1}\text{​ or ​}\mathbf{1}$ is used it is essential to test the value of IFAIL on exit.
On exit: ${\mathbf{IFAIL}}={\mathbf{0}}$ unless the routine detects an error or a warning has been flagged (see Section 6).

## 6  Error Indicators and Warnings

If on entry ${\mathbf{IFAIL}}={\mathbf{0}}$ or $-{\mathbf{1}}$, explanatory error messages are output on the current error message unit (as defined by X04AAF).
Errors or warnings detected by the routine:
${\mathbf{IFAIL}}=1$
On entry, ${\mathbf{N}}<0$.
${\mathbf{IFAIL}}=2$
On entry, ${\mathbf{DF}}<1$.
${\mathbf{IFAIL}}=3$
 On entry, STATE vector was not initialized or has been corrupted.

## 7  Accuracy

Not applicable.

The time taken by G05SNF increases with $\nu$.

## 9  Example

This example prints five pseudorandom numbers from a Student's $t$-distribution with five degrees of freedom, generated by a single call to G05SNF, after initialization by G05KFF.

### 9.1  Program Text

Program Text (g05snfe.f90)

### 9.2  Program Data

Program Data (g05snfe.d)

### 9.3  Program Results

Program Results (g05snfe.r)