F08 Chapter Contents
F08 Chapter Introduction
NAG Library Manual

# NAG Library Routine DocumentF08UQF (ZHBGVD)

Note:  before using this routine, please read the Users' Note for your implementation to check the interpretation of bold italicised terms and other implementation-dependent details.

## 1  Purpose

F08UQF (ZHBGVD) computes all the eigenvalues and, optionally, the eigenvectors of a complex generalized Hermitian-definite banded eigenproblem, of the form
 $Az=λBz ,$
where $A$ and $B$ are Hermitian and banded, and $B$ is also positive definite. If eigenvectors are desired, it uses a divide-and-conquer algorithm.

## 2  Specification

 SUBROUTINE F08UQF ( JOBZ, UPLO, N, KA, KB, AB, LDAB, BB, LDBB, W, Z, LDZ, WORK, LWORK, RWORK, LRWORK, IWORK, LIWORK, INFO)
 INTEGER N, KA, KB, LDAB, LDBB, LDZ, LWORK, LRWORK, IWORK(max(1,LIWORK)), LIWORK, INFO REAL (KIND=nag_wp) W(N), RWORK(max(1,LRWORK)) COMPLEX (KIND=nag_wp) AB(LDAB,*), BB(LDBB,*), Z(LDZ,*), WORK(max(1,LWORK)) CHARACTER(1) JOBZ, UPLO
The routine may be called by its LAPACK name zhbgvd.

## 3  Description

The generalized Hermitian-definite band problem
 $Az = λ Bz$
is first reduced to a standard band Hermitian problem
 $Cx = λx ,$
where $C$ is a Hermitian band matrix, using Wilkinson's modification to Crawford's algorithm (see Crawford (1973) and Wilkinson (1977)). The Hermitian eigenvalue problem is then solved for the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors, if required, which are then backtransformed to the eigenvectors of the original problem.
The eigenvectors are normalized so that the matrix of eigenvectors, $Z$, satisfies
 $ZH A Z = Λ and ZH B Z = I ,$
where $\Lambda$ is the diagonal matrix whose diagonal elements are the eigenvalues.

## 4  References

Anderson E, Bai Z, Bischof C, Blackford S, Demmel J, Dongarra J J, Du Croz J J, Greenbaum A, Hammarling S, McKenney A and Sorensen D (1999) LAPACK Users' Guide (3rd Edition) SIAM, Philadelphia http://www.netlib.org/lapack/lug
Crawford C R (1973) Reduction of a band-symmetric generalized eigenvalue problem Comm. ACM 16 41–44
Golub G H and Van Loan C F (1996) Matrix Computations (3rd Edition) Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore
Wilkinson J H (1977) Some recent advances in numerical linear algebra The State of the Art in Numerical Analysis (ed D A H Jacobs) Academic Press

## 5  Parameters

1:     JOBZ – CHARACTER(1)Input
On entry: indicates whether eigenvectors are computed.
${\mathbf{JOBZ}}=\text{'N'}$
Only eigenvalues are computed.
${\mathbf{JOBZ}}=\text{'V'}$
Eigenvalues and eigenvectors are computed.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{JOBZ}}=\text{'N'}$ or $\text{'V'}$.
2:     UPLO – CHARACTER(1)Input
On entry: if ${\mathbf{UPLO}}=\text{'U'}$, the upper triangles of $A$ and $B$ are stored.
If ${\mathbf{UPLO}}=\text{'L'}$, the lower triangles of $A$ and $B$ are stored.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{UPLO}}=\text{'U'}$ or $\text{'L'}$.
3:     N – INTEGERInput
On entry: $n$, the order of the matrices $A$ and $B$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{N}}\ge 0$.
4:     KA – INTEGERInput
On entry: if ${\mathbf{UPLO}}=\text{'U'}$, the number of superdiagonals, ${k}_{a}$, of the matrix $A$.
If ${\mathbf{UPLO}}=\text{'L'}$, the number of subdiagonals, ${k}_{a}$, of the matrix $A$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{KA}}\ge 0$.
5:     KB – INTEGERInput
On entry: if ${\mathbf{UPLO}}=\text{'U'}$, the number of superdiagonals, ${k}_{b}$, of the matrix $B$.
If ${\mathbf{UPLO}}=\text{'L'}$, the number of subdiagonals, ${k}_{b}$, of the matrix $B$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{KA}}\ge {\mathbf{KB}}\ge 0$.
6:     AB(LDAB,$*$) – COMPLEX (KIND=nag_wp) arrayInput/Output
Note: the second dimension of the array AB must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{N}}\right)$.
On entry: the upper or lower triangle of the $n$ by $n$ Hermitian band matrix $A$.
The matrix is stored in rows $1$ to ${k}_{a}+1$, more precisely,
• if ${\mathbf{UPLO}}=\text{'U'}$, the elements of the upper triangle of $A$ within the band must be stored with element ${A}_{ij}$ in ${\mathbf{AB}}\left({k}_{a}+1+i-j,j\right)\text{​ for ​}\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,j-{k}_{a}\right)\le i\le j$;
• if ${\mathbf{UPLO}}=\text{'L'}$, the elements of the lower triangle of $A$ within the band must be stored with element ${A}_{ij}$ in ${\mathbf{AB}}\left(1+i-j,j\right)\text{​ for ​}j\le i\le \mathrm{min}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(n,j+{k}_{a}\right)\text{.}$
On exit: the contents of AB are overwritten.
7:     LDAB – INTEGERInput
On entry: the first dimension of the array AB as declared in the (sub)program from which F08UQF (ZHBGVD) is called.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{LDAB}}\ge {\mathbf{KA}}+1$.
8:     BB(LDBB,$*$) – COMPLEX (KIND=nag_wp) arrayInput/Output
Note: the second dimension of the array BB must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{N}}\right)$.
On entry: the upper or lower triangle of the $n$ by $n$ Hermitian band matrix $B$.
The matrix is stored in rows $1$ to ${k}_{b}+1$, more precisely,
• if ${\mathbf{UPLO}}=\text{'U'}$, the elements of the upper triangle of $B$ within the band must be stored with element ${B}_{ij}$ in ${\mathbf{BB}}\left({k}_{b}+1+i-j,j\right)\text{​ for ​}\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,j-{k}_{b}\right)\le i\le j$;
• if ${\mathbf{UPLO}}=\text{'L'}$, the elements of the lower triangle of $B$ within the band must be stored with element ${B}_{ij}$ in ${\mathbf{BB}}\left(1+i-j,j\right)\text{​ for ​}j\le i\le \mathrm{min}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(n,j+{k}_{b}\right)\text{.}$
On exit: the factor $S$ from the split Cholesky factorization $B={S}^{\mathrm{H}}S$, as returned by F08UTF (ZPBSTF).
9:     LDBB – INTEGERInput
On entry: the first dimension of the array BB as declared in the (sub)program from which F08UQF (ZHBGVD) is called.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{LDBB}}\ge {\mathbf{KB}}+1$.
10:   W(N) – REAL (KIND=nag_wp) arrayOutput
On exit: the eigenvalues in ascending order.
11:   Z(LDZ,$*$) – COMPLEX (KIND=nag_wp) arrayOutput
Note: the second dimension of the array Z must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{N}}\right)$ if ${\mathbf{JOBZ}}=\text{'V'}$, and at least $1$ otherwise.
On exit: if ${\mathbf{JOBZ}}=\text{'V'}$, Z contains the matrix $Z$ of eigenvectors, with the $i$th column of $Z$ holding the eigenvector associated with ${\mathbf{W}}\left(i\right)$. The eigenvectors are normalized so that ${Z}^{\mathrm{H}}BZ=I$.
If ${\mathbf{JOBZ}}=\text{'N'}$, Z is not referenced.
12:   LDZ – INTEGERInput
On entry: the first dimension of the array Z as declared in the (sub)program from which F08UQF (ZHBGVD) is called.
Constraints:
• if ${\mathbf{JOBZ}}=\text{'V'}$, ${\mathbf{LDZ}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{N}}\right)$;
• otherwise ${\mathbf{LDZ}}\ge 1$.
13:   WORK($\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{LWORK}}\right)$) – COMPLEX (KIND=nag_wp) arrayWorkspace
On exit: if ${\mathbf{INFO}}={\mathbf{0}}$, the real part of ${\mathbf{WORK}}\left(1\right)$ contains the minimum value of LWORK required for optimal performance.
14:   LWORK – INTEGERInput
On entry: the dimension of the array WORK as declared in the (sub)program from which F08UQF (ZHBGVD) is called.
If ${\mathbf{LWORK}}=-1$, a workspace query is assumed; the routine only calculates the optimal sizes of the WORK, RWORK and IWORK arrays, returns these values as the first entries of the WORK, RWORK and IWORK arrays, and no error message related to LWORK, LRWORK or LIWORK is issued.
Constraints:
• if ${\mathbf{N}}\le 1$, ${\mathbf{LWORK}}\ge 1$;
• if ${\mathbf{JOBZ}}=\text{'N'}$ and ${\mathbf{N}}>1$, ${\mathbf{LWORK}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{N}}\right)$;
• if ${\mathbf{JOBZ}}=\text{'V'}$ and ${\mathbf{N}}>1$, ${\mathbf{LWORK}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{{\mathbf{N}}}^{2}\right)$.
15:   RWORK($\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{LRWORK}}\right)$) – REAL (KIND=nag_wp) arrayWorkspace
On exit: if ${\mathbf{INFO}}={\mathbf{0}}$, ${\mathbf{RWORK}}\left(1\right)$ returns the optimal LRWORK.
16:   LRWORK – INTEGERInput
On entry: the first dimension of the array RWORK as declared in the (sub)program from which F08UQF (ZHBGVD) is called.
If ${\mathbf{LRWORK}}=-1$, a workspace query is assumed; the routine only calculates the optimal sizes of the WORK, RWORK and IWORK arrays, returns these values as the first entries of the WORK, RWORK and IWORK arrays, and no error message related to LWORK, LRWORK or LIWORK is issued.
Constraints:
• if ${\mathbf{N}}\le 1$, ${\mathbf{LRWORK}}\ge 1$;
• if ${\mathbf{JOBZ}}=\text{'N'}$ and ${\mathbf{N}}>1$, ${\mathbf{LRWORK}}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{N}}\right)$;
• if ${\mathbf{JOBZ}}=\text{'V'}$ and ${\mathbf{N}}>1$, ${\mathbf{LRWORK}}\ge 1+5×{\mathbf{N}}+2×{{\mathbf{N}}}^{2}$.
17:   IWORK($\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{LIWORK}}\right)$) – INTEGER arrayWorkspace
On exit: if ${\mathbf{INFO}}={\mathbf{0}}$, ${\mathbf{IWORK}}\left(1\right)$ returns the optimal LIWORK.
18:   LIWORK – INTEGERInput
On entry: the dimension of the array IWORK as declared in the (sub)program from which F08UQF (ZHBGVD) is called.
If ${\mathbf{LIWORK}}=-1$, a workspace query is assumed; the routine only calculates the optimal sizes of the WORK, RWORK and IWORK arrays, returns these values as the first entries of the WORK, RWORK and IWORK arrays, and no error message related to LWORK, LRWORK or LIWORK is issued.
Constraints:
• if ${\mathbf{JOBZ}}=\text{'N'}$ or ${\mathbf{N}}\le 1$, ${\mathbf{LIWORK}}\ge 1$;
• if ${\mathbf{JOBZ}}=\text{'V'}$ and ${\mathbf{N}}>1$, ${\mathbf{LIWORK}}\ge 3+5×{\mathbf{N}}$.
19:   INFO – INTEGEROutput
On exit: ${\mathbf{INFO}}=0$ unless the routine detects an error (see Section 6).

## 6  Error Indicators and Warnings

Errors or warnings detected by the routine:
${\mathbf{INFO}}<0$
If ${\mathbf{INFO}}=-i$, argument $i$ had an illegal value. An explanatory message is output, and execution of the program is terminated.
${\mathbf{INFO}}>0$
If ${\mathbf{INFO}}=i$ and $i\le {\mathbf{N}}$, the algorithm failed to converge; $i$ off-diagonal elements of an intermediate tridiagonal form did not converge to zero.
If ${\mathbf{INFO}}=i$ and $i>{\mathbf{N}}$, if ${\mathbf{INFO}}={\mathbf{N}}+i$, for $1\le i\le {\mathbf{N}}$, then F08UTF (ZPBSTF) returned ${\mathbf{INFO}}=i$: $B$ is not positive definite. The factorization of $B$ could not be completed and no eigenvalues or eigenvectors were computed.

## 7  Accuracy

If $B$ is ill-conditioned with respect to inversion, then the error bounds for the computed eigenvalues and vectors may be large, although when the diagonal elements of $B$ differ widely in magnitude the eigenvalues and eigenvectors may be less sensitive than the condition of $B$ would suggest. See Section 4.10 of Anderson et al. (1999) for details of the error bounds.

The total number of floating point operations is proportional to ${n}^{3}$ if ${\mathbf{JOBZ}}=\text{'V'}$ and, assuming that $n\gg {k}_{a}$, is approximately proportional to ${n}^{2}{k}_{a}$ otherwise.
The real analogue of this routine is F08UCF (DSBGVD).

## 9  Example

This example finds all the eigenvalues of the generalized band Hermitian eigenproblem $Az=\lambda Bz$, where
 $A = -1.13i+0.00 1.94-2.10i -1.40+0.25i 0.00i+0.00 1.94+2.10i -1.91i+0.00 -0.82-0.89i -0.67+0.34i -1.40-0.25i -0.82+0.89i -1.87i+0.00 -1.10-0.16i 0.00i+0.00 -0.67-0.34i -1.10+0.16i 0.50i+0.00$
and
 $B = 9.89i+0.00 1.08-1.73i 0.00i+0.00 0.00i+0.00 1.08+1.73i 1.69i+0.00 -0.04+0.29i 0.00i+0.00 0.00i+0.00 -0.04-0.29i 2.65i+0.00 -0.33+2.24i 0.00i+0.00 0.00i+0.00 -0.33-2.24i 2.17i+0.00 .$

### 9.1  Program Text

Program Text (f08uqfe.f90)

### 9.2  Program Data

Program Data (f08uqfe.d)

### 9.3  Program Results

Program Results (f08uqfe.r)