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Chapter Contents
Chapter Introduction
NAG Toolbox

NAG Toolbox: nag_correg_linregm_var_add (g02de)


    1  Purpose
    2  Syntax
    7  Accuracy
    9  Example


nag_correg_linregm_var_add (g02de) adds a new independent variable to a general linear regression model.


[q, p, rss, ifail] = g02de(ip, q, p, x, 'n', n, 'wt', wt, 'tol', tol)
[q, p, rss, ifail] = nag_correg_linregm_var_add(ip, q, p, x, 'n', n, 'wt', wt, 'tol', tol)
Note: the interface to this routine has changed since earlier releases of the toolbox:
At Mark 23: weight was removed from the interface; wt was made optional


A linear regression model may be built up by adding new independent variables to an existing model. nag_correg_linregm_var_add (g02de) updates the QR decomposition used in the computation of the linear regression model. The QR decomposition may come from nag_correg_linregm_fit (g02da) or a previous call to nag_correg_linregm_var_add (g02de). The general linear regression model is defined by
where y is a vector of n observations on the dependent variable,
X is an n by p matrix of the independent variables of column rank k,
β is a vector of length p of unknown arguments,
and ε is a vector of length n of unknown random errors such that varε=Vσ2, where V is a known diagonal matrix.
If V=I, the identity matrix, then least squares estimation is used. If VI, then for a given weight matrix WV-1, weighted least squares estimation is used.
The least squares estimates, β^ of the arguments β minimize y-XβT y-Xβ  while the weighted least squares estimates, minimize y-XβT W y-Xβ .
The parameter estimates may be found by computing a QR decomposition of X (or W12X in the weighted case), i.e.,
X=QR*or  W12X=QR*,  
where R*= R 0  and R is a p by p upper triangular matrix and Q is an n by n orthogonal matrix.
If R is of full rank, then β^ is the solution to
where c=QTy (or QTW12y) and c1 is the first p elements of c.
If R is not of full rank a solution is obtained by means of a singular value decomposition (SVD) of R.
To add a new independent variable, xp+1, R and c have to be updated. The matrix Qp+1 is found such that Qp+1T R:QTxp+1 (or Qp+1T R:QTW12xp+1) is upper triangular. The vector c is then updated by multiplying by Qp+1T .
The new independent variable is tested to see if it is linearly related to the existing independent variables by checking that at least one of the values QTxp+1i, for i=p+2,,n, is nonzero.
The new parameter estimates, β^, can then be obtained by a call to nag_correg_linregm_update (g02dd).
The function can be used with p=0, in which case R and c are initialized.


Draper N R and Smith H (1985) Applied Regression Analysis (2nd Edition) Wiley
Golub G H and Van Loan C F (1996) Matrix Computations (3rd Edition) Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore
Hammarling S (1985) The singular value decomposition in multivariate statistics SIGNUM Newsl. 20(3) 2–25
McCullagh P and Nelder J A (1983) Generalized Linear Models Chapman and Hall
Searle S R (1971) Linear Models Wiley


Compulsory Input Parameters

1:     ip int64int32nag_int scalar
p, the number of independent variables already in the model.
Constraint: ip0 and ip<n.
2:     qldqip+2 – double array
ldq, the first dimension of the array, must satisfy the constraint ldqn.
If ip0, q must contain the results of the QR decomposition for the model with p arguments as returned by nag_correg_linregm_fit (g02da) or a previous call to nag_correg_linregm_var_add (g02de).
If ip=0, the first column of q should contain the n values of the dependent variable, y.
3:     pip+1 – double array
Contains further details of the QR decomposition used. The first ip elements of p must contain the zeta values for the QR decomposition (see nag_lapack_dgeqrf (f08ae) for details).
The first ip elements of array p are provided by nag_correg_linregm_fit (g02da) or by previous calls to nag_correg_linregm_var_add (g02de).
4:     xn – double array
x, the new independent variable.

Optional Input Parameters

1:     n int64int32nag_int scalar
Default: the dimension of the array x and the first dimension of the array q. (An error is raised if these dimensions are not equal.)
n, the number of observations.
Constraint: n1.
2:     wt: – double array
The dimension of the array wt must be at least n if weight='W', and at least 1 otherwise
If provided, wt must contain the weights to be used.
If wti=0.0, the ith observation is not included in the model, in which case the effective number of observations is the number of observations with nonzero weights.
If wt is not provided the effective number of observations is n.
Constraint: if weight='W', wti0.0, for i=1,2,,n.
3:     tol – double scalar
Default: 0.000001
The value of tol is used to decide if the new independent variable is linearly related to independent variables already included in the model. If the new variable is linearly related then c is not updated. The smaller the value of tol the stricter the criterion for deciding if there is a linear relationship.
Constraint: tol>0.0.

Output Parameters

1:     qldqip+2 – double array
The results of the QR decomposition for the model with p+1 arguments:
  • the first column of q contains the updated value of c;
  • the columns 2 to ip+1 are unchanged;
  • the first ip+1 elements of column ip+2 contain the new column of R, while the remaining n-ip-1 elements contain details of the matrix Qp+1.
2:     pip+1 – double array
The first ip elements of p are unchanged and the ip+1th element contains the zeta value for Qp+1.
3:     rss – double scalar
The residual sum of squares for the new fitted model.
Note:  this will only be valid if the model is of full rank, see Further Comments.
4:     ifail int64int32nag_int scalar
ifail=0 unless the function detects an error (see Error Indicators and Warnings).

Error Indicators and Warnings

Note: nag_correg_linregm_var_add (g02de) may return useful information for one or more of the following detected errors or warnings.
Errors or warnings detected by the function:

Cases prefixed with W are classified as warnings and do not generate an error of type NAG:error_n. See nag_issue_warnings.

On entry,n<1,
orweight'U' or 'W'.
On entry, weight='W' and a value of wt<0.0.
W  ifail=3
The new independent variable is a linear combination of existing variables. The ip+2th column of q will therefore be null.
An unexpected error has been triggered by this routine. Please contact NAG.
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
Dynamic memory allocation failed.


The accuracy is closely related to the accuracy of nag_lapack_dormqr (f08ag) which should be consulted for further details.

Further Comments

It should be noted that the residual sum of squares produced by nag_correg_linregm_var_add (g02de) may not be correct if the model to which the new independent variable is added is not of full rank. In such a case nag_correg_linregm_update (g02dd) should be used to calculate the residual sum of squares.


A dataset consisting of 12 observations is read in. The four independent variables are stored in the array x while the dependent variable is read into the first column of q. If the character variable mean indicates that a mean should be included in the model a variable taking the value 1.0 for all observations is set up and fitted. Subsequently, one variable at a time is selected to enter the model as indicated by the input value of indx. After the variable has been added the parameter estimates are calculated by nag_correg_linregm_update (g02dd) and the results printed. This is repeated until the input value of indx is 0.
function g02de_example

fprintf('g02de example results\n\n');

x = [1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0;
     1.0  1.5  2.0  2.5  3.0  3.5  4.0  4.5  5.0  5.5  6.0  6.5;
     0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0  1.0;
     0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  4.0  4.5  5.0  5.5  6.0  6.5;
     1.4  2.2  4.5  6.1  7.1  7.7  8.3  8.6  8.8  9.0  9.3  9.2];
[m,n] = size(x);
y = [4.32; 5.21; 6.49; 7.10; 7.94; 8.53;
     8.84; 9.02; 9.27; 9.43; 9.68; 9.83]; 

q = zeros(n,m+1);
q(:,1) = y;
p = zeros(m*(m+2),1);;
ip = int64(0);

% Add variables to model one at a time
for j = 1:m
  [q, p, rss, ifail] = g02de( ...
                              ip, q, p, x(j,1:n));
  ip = ip + 1;
  fprintf('\nVariable %4d added\n',ip);

  % Calculate parameter estimates
  rsst = 0;
  [rsst, idf, b, se, covar, svd, irank, p2, ifail] = ...
  g02dd(int64(n), ip, q, rsst);

  if svd
    fprintf('Model not of full rank\n\n');
  fprintf('Residual sum of squares = %12.4e\n', rsst);
  fprintf('Degrees of freedom      = %4d\n', idf);
  fprintf('\nVariable   Parameter estimate   Standard error\n\n');
  ivar = double([1:ip]');
  fprintf('%6d%20.4e%20.4e\n',[ivar b se]');

g02de example results

Variable    1 added
Residual sum of squares =   3.6267e+01
Degrees of freedom      =   11

Variable   Parameter estimate   Standard error

     1          7.9717e+00          5.2416e-01

Variable    2 added
Residual sum of squares =   4.0164e+00
Degrees of freedom      =   10

Variable   Parameter estimate   Standard error

     1          4.4100e+00          4.3756e-01
     2          9.4979e-01          1.0599e-01

Variable    3 added
Residual sum of squares =   3.8872e+00
Degrees of freedom      =    9

Variable   Parameter estimate   Standard error

     1          4.2236e+00          5.6734e-01
     2          1.0554e+00          2.2217e-01
     3         -4.1962e-01          7.6695e-01

Variable    4 added
Residual sum of squares =   1.8702e-01
Degrees of freedom      =    8

Variable   Parameter estimate   Standard error

     1          2.7605e+00          1.7592e-01
     2          1.7057e+00          7.3100e-02
     3          4.4575e+00          4.2676e-01
     4         -1.3006e+00          1.0338e-01

Variable    5 added
Residual sum of squares =   8.4066e-02
Degrees of freedom      =    7

Variable   Parameter estimate   Standard error

     1          3.1440e+00          1.8181e-01
     2          9.0748e-01          2.7761e-01
     3          2.0790e+00          8.6804e-01
     4         -6.1589e-01          2.4530e-01
     5          2.9224e-01          9.9810e-02

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NAG Toolbox

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