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Chapter Contents
Chapter Introduction
NAG Toolbox

NAG Toolbox: nag_correg_coeffs_kspearman_miss_case (g02br)


    1  Purpose
    2  Syntax
    7  Accuracy
    9  Example


nag_correg_coeffs_kspearman_miss_case (g02br) computes Kendall and/or Spearman nonparametric rank correlation coefficients for a set of data, omitting completely any cases with a missing observation for any variable; the data array is preserved, and the ranks of the observations are not available on exit from the function.


[rr, ncases, incase, ifail] = g02br(x, miss, xmiss, itype, 'n', n, 'm', m)
[rr, ncases, incase, ifail] = nag_correg_coeffs_kspearman_miss_case(x, miss, xmiss, itype, 'n', n, 'm', m)
Note: the interface to this routine has changed since earlier releases of the toolbox:
At Mark 22: n was made optional; miss and xmiss are no longer output parameters


The input data consists of n observations for each of m variables, given as an array
xij ,   i=1,2,,n n2 ,   j=1,2,,m m2 ,  
where xij is the ith observation on the jth variable. In addition, each of the m variables may optionally have associated with it a value which is to be considered as representing a missing observation for that variable; the missing value for the jth variable is denoted by xmj. Missing values need not be specified for all variables.
Let wi=0 if observation i contains a missing value for any of those variables for which missing values have been declared, i.e., if xij=xmj for any j for which an xmj has been assigned (see also Accuracy); and wi=1 otherwise, for i=1,2,,n.
The observations are first ranked as follows.
For a given variable, j say, each of the observations xij for which wi=1, (i=1,2,,n) has associated with it an additional number, the ‘rank’ of the observation, which indicates the magnitude of that observation relative to the magnitudes of the other observations on that same variable for which wi=1.
The smallest of these valid observations for variable j is assigned the rank 1, the second smallest observation for variable j the rank 2, the third smallest the rank 3, and so on until the largest such observation is given the rank nc, where nc=i=1nwi.
If a number of cases all have the same value for the given variable, j, then they are each given an ‘average’ rank, e.g., if in attempting to assign the rank h+1, k observations for which wi=1 were found to have the same value, then instead of giving them the ranks
h+1, h+2, , h+k ,  
all k observations would be assigned the rank
2h+k+1 2  
and the next value in ascending order would be assigned the rank
h+k+ 1 .  
The process is repeated for each of the m variables.
Let yij be the rank assigned to the observation xij when the jth variable is being ranked. For those observations, i, for which wi=0, yij=0, for j=1,2,,m.
The quantities calculated are:
(a) Kendall's tau rank correlation coefficients:
Rjk = h=1 n i=1 n wh wi signyhj-yij signyhk-yik ncnc-1-Tjncnc-1-Tk ,   j,k=1,2,,m ,  
where nc=i=1nwi
and signu=1 if u>0
signu=0 if u=0
signu=-1 if u<0
and Tj=tjtj-1 where tj is the number of ties of a particular value of variable j, and the summation is over all tied values of variable j.
(b) Spearman's rank correlation coefficients:
Rjk*=ncnc2-1-6i=1nwi yij-yik 2-12Tj*+Tk* ncnc2-1-Tj*ncnc2-1-Tk* ,  j,k=1,2,,m,  
where nc=i=1nwi and Tj*=tjtj2-1 where tj is the number of ties of a particular value of variable j, and the summation is over all tied values of variable j.


Siegel S (1956) Non-parametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences McGraw–Hill


Compulsory Input Parameters

1:     xldxm – double array
ldx, the first dimension of the array, must satisfy the constraint ldxn.
xij must be set to xij, the value of the ith observation on the jth variable, where i=1,2,,n and j=1,2,,m.
2:     missm int64int32nag_int array
missj must be set equal to 1 if a missing value, xmj, is to be specified for the jth variable in the array x, or set equal to 0 otherwise. Values of miss must be given for all m variables in the array x.
3:     xmissm – double array
xmissj must be set to the missing value, xmj, to be associated with the jth variable in the array x, for those variables for which missing values are specified by means of the array miss (see Accuracy).
4:     itype int64int32nag_int scalar
The type of correlation coefficients which are to be calculated.
Only Kendall's tau coefficients are calculated.
Both Kendall's tau and Spearman's coefficients are calculated.
Only Spearman's coefficients are calculated.
Constraint: itype=-1, 0 or 1.

Optional Input Parameters

1:     n int64int32nag_int scalar
Default: the first dimension of the array x.
n, the number of observations or cases.
Constraint: n2.
2:     m int64int32nag_int scalar
Default: the dimension of the arrays miss, xmiss and the second dimension of the array x. (An error is raised if these dimensions are not equal.)
m, the number of variables.
Constraint: m2.

Output Parameters

1:     rrldrrm – double array
The requested correlation coefficients.
If only Kendall's tau coefficients are requested (itype=-1), rrjk contains Kendall's tau for the jth and kth variables.
If only Spearman's coefficients are requested (itype=1), rrjk contains Spearman's rank correlation coefficient for the jth and kth variables.
If both Kendall's tau and Spearman's coefficients are requested (itype=0), the upper triangle of rr contains the Spearman coefficients and the lower triangle the Kendall coefficients. That is, for the jth and kth variables, where j is less than k, rrjk contains the Spearman rank correlation coefficient, and rrkj contains Kendall's tau, for j=1,2,,m and k=1,2,,m.
(Diagonal terms, rrjj, are unity for all three values of itype.)
2:     ncases int64int32nag_int scalar
The number of cases, nc, actually used in the calculations (when cases involving missing values have been eliminated).
3:     incasen int64int32nag_int array
incasei holds the value 1 if the ith case was included in the calculations, and the value 0 if the ith case contained a missing value for at least one variable. That is, incasei=wi (see Description), for i=1,2,,n.
4:     ifail int64int32nag_int scalar
ifail=0 unless the function detects an error (see Error Indicators and Warnings).

Error Indicators and Warnings

Errors or warnings detected by the function:
On entry,n<2.
On entry,m<2.
On entry,ldx<n,
On entry,itype<-1,
After observations with missing values were omitted, fewer than 2 cases remained.
An unexpected error has been triggered by this routine. Please contact NAG.
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
Dynamic memory allocation failed.


You are warned of the need to exercise extreme care in your selection of missing values. nag_correg_coeffs_kspearman_miss_case (g02br) treats all values in the inclusive range 1±0.1x02be-2×xmj, where xmj is the missing value for variable j specified in xmiss.
You must therefore ensure that the missing value chosen for each variable is sufficiently different from all valid values for that variable so that none of the valid values fall within the range indicated above.

Further Comments

The time taken by nag_correg_coeffs_kspearman_miss_case (g02br) depends on n and m, and the occurrence of missing values.


This example reads in a set of data consisting of nine observations on each of three variables. Missing values of 0.99 and 0.0 are declared for the first and third variables respectively; no missing value is specified for the second variable. The program then calculates and prints both Kendall's tau and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients for all three variables, omitting completely all cases containing missing values; cases 5, 8 and 9 are therefore eliminated, leaving only six cases in the calculations.
function g02br_example

fprintf('g02br example results\n\n');

x = [1.7,  1, 0.5;
     2.8,  4, 3.0;
     0.6,  6, 2.5;
     1.8,  9, 6.0;
     0.99, 4, 2.5;
     1.4,  2, 5.5;
     1.8,  9, 7.5;
     2.5,  7, 0.0;
     0.99, 5, 3.0];
[n,m] = size(x);
fprintf('Number of variables (columns) = %d\n', m);
fprintf('Number of cases     (rows)    = %d\n\n', n);
disp('Data matrix is:-');
miss  = [int64(1); 0; 1];
xmiss = [0.99;       0; 0];
itype = int64(0);

[rr, ncases, incase, ifail] = ...
  g02br( ...
         x, miss, xmiss, itype);

fprintf('Matrix of rank correlation coefficients:\n');
fprintf('Upper triangle -- Spearman''s\n');
fprintf('Lower triangle -- Kendall''s tau\n\n');
fprintf('Number of cases actually used  = %d\n', ncases);

g02br example results

Number of variables (columns) = 3
Number of cases     (rows)    = 9

Data matrix is:-
    1.7000    1.0000    0.5000
    2.8000    4.0000    3.0000
    0.6000    6.0000    2.5000
    1.8000    9.0000    6.0000
    0.9900    4.0000    2.5000
    1.4000    2.0000    5.5000
    1.8000    9.0000    7.5000
    2.5000    7.0000         0
    0.9900    5.0000    3.0000

Matrix of rank correlation coefficients:
Upper triangle -- Spearman's
Lower triangle -- Kendall's tau

    1.0000    0.2941    0.4058
    0.1429    1.0000    0.7537
    0.2760    0.5521    1.0000

Number of cases actually used  = 6

PDF version (NAG web site, 64-bit version, 64-bit version)
Chapter Contents
Chapter Introduction
NAG Toolbox

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