hide long namesshow long names
hide short namesshow short names
Integer type:  int32  int64  nag_int  show int32  show int32  show int64  show int64  show nag_int  show nag_int

PDF version (NAG web site, 64-bit version, 64-bit version)
Chapter Contents
Chapter Introduction
NAG Toolbox

NAG Toolbox: nag_sparse_complex_herm_solve_jacssor (f11js)


    1  Purpose
    2  Syntax
    7  Accuracy
    9  Example


nag_sparse_complex_herm_solve_jacssor (f11js) solves a complex sparse Hermitian system of linear equations, represented in symmetric coordinate storage format, using a conjugate gradient or Lanczos method, without preconditioning, with Jacobi or with SSOR preconditioning.


[x, rnorm, itn, rdiag, ifail] = f11js(method, precon, a, irow, icol, omega, b, tol, maxitn, x, 'n', n, 'nz', nz)
[x, rnorm, itn, rdiag, ifail] = nag_sparse_complex_herm_solve_jacssor(method, precon, a, irow, icol, omega, b, tol, maxitn, x, 'n', n, 'nz', nz)


nag_sparse_complex_herm_solve_jacssor (f11js) solves a complex sparse Hermitian linear system of equations
using a preconditioned conjugate gradient method (see Barrett et al. (1994)), or a preconditioned Lanczos method based on the algorithm SYMMLQ (see Paige and Saunders (1975)). The conjugate gradient method is more efficient if A is positive definite, but may fail to converge for indefinite matrices. In this case the Lanczos method should be used instead. For further details see Barrett et al. (1994).
nag_sparse_complex_herm_solve_jacssor (f11js) allows the following choices for the preconditioner:
For incomplete Cholesky (IC) preconditioning see nag_sparse_complex_herm_solve_ilu (f11jq).
The matrix A is represented in symmetric coordinate storage (SCS) format (see Symmetric coordinate storage (SCS) format in the F11 Chapter Introduction) in the arrays a, irow and icol. The array a holds the nonzero entries in the lower triangular part of the matrix, while irow and icol hold the corresponding row and column indices.


Barrett R, Berry M, Chan T F, Demmel J, Donato J, Dongarra J, Eijkhout V, Pozo R, Romine C and Van der Vorst H (1994) Templates for the Solution of Linear Systems: Building Blocks for Iterative Methods SIAM, Philadelphia
Paige C C and Saunders M A (1975) Solution of sparse indefinite systems of linear equations SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 12 617–629
Young D (1971) Iterative Solution of Large Linear Systems Academic Press, New York


Compulsory Input Parameters

1:     method – string
Specifies the iterative method to be used.
Conjugate gradient method.
Lanczos method (SYMMLQ).
Constraint: method='CG' or 'SYMMLQ'.
2:     precon – string (length ≥ 1)
Specifies the type of preconditioning to be used.
No preconditioning.
Symmetric successive-over-relaxation (SSOR).
Constraint: precon='N', 'J' or 'S'.
3:     anz – complex array
The nonzero elements of the lower triangular part of the matrix A, ordered by increasing row index, and by increasing column index within each row. Multiple entries for the same row and column indices are not permitted. The function nag_sparse_complex_herm_sort (f11zp) may be used to order the elements in this way.
4:     irownz int64int32nag_int array
5:     icolnz int64int32nag_int array
The row and column indices of the nonzero elements supplied in array a.
irow and icol must satisfy these constraints (which may be imposed by a call to nag_sparse_complex_herm_sort (f11zp)):
  • 1irowin and 1icoliirowi, for i=1,2,,nz;
  • irowi-1<irowi or irowi-1=irowi and icoli-1<icoli, for i=2,3,,nz.
6:     omega – double scalar
If precon='S', omega is the relaxation parameter ω to be used in the SSOR method. Otherwise omega need not be initialized.
Constraint: 0.0<omega<2.0.
7:     bn – complex array
The right-hand side vector b.
8:     tol – double scalar
The required tolerance. Let xk denote the approximate solution at iteration k, and rk the corresponding residual. The algorithm is considered to have converged at iteration k if
If tol0.0, τ=maxε,10ε,nε is used, where ε is the machine precision. Otherwise τ=maxtol,10ε,nε is used.
Constraint: tol<1.0.
9:     maxitn int64int32nag_int scalar
The maximum number of iterations allowed.
Constraint: maxitn1.
10:   xn – complex array
An initial approximation to the solution vector x.

Optional Input Parameters

1:     n int64int32nag_int scalar
Default: the dimension of the arrays b, x. (An error is raised if these dimensions are not equal.)
n, the order of the matrix A.
Constraint: n1.
2:     nz int64int32nag_int scalar
Default: the dimension of the arrays a, irow, icol. (An error is raised if these dimensions are not equal.)
The number of nonzero elements in the lower triangular part of the matrix A.
Constraint: 1nzn×n+1/2.

Output Parameters

1:     xn – complex array
An improved approximation to the solution vector x.
2:     rnorm – double scalar
The final value of the residual norm rk, where k is the output value of itn.
3:     itn int64int32nag_int scalar
The number of iterations carried out.
4:     rdiagn – double array
The elements of the diagonal matrix D-1, where D is the diagonal part of A. Note that since A is Hermitian the elements of D-1 are necessarily real.
5:     ifail int64int32nag_int scalar
ifail=0 unless the function detects an error (see Error Indicators and Warnings).

Error Indicators and Warnings

Errors or warnings detected by the function:
On entry,method'CG' or 'SYMMLQ',
orprecon'N', 'J' or 'S',
oromega lies outside the interval 0.0,2.0,
orlwork is too small.
On entry, the arrays irow and icol fail to satisfy the following constraints:
  • 1irowin and 1icoliirowi, for i=1,2,,nz;
  • irowi-1<irowi, or irowi-1=irowi and icoli-1<icoli, for i=2,3,,nz.
Therefore a nonzero element has been supplied which does not lie in the lower triangular part of A, is out of order, or has duplicate row and column indices. Call nag_sparse_complex_herm_sort (f11zp) to reorder and sum or remove duplicates.
On entry, the matrix A has a zero diagonal element. Jacobi and SSOR preconditioners are not appropriate for this problem.
The required accuracy could not be obtained. However, a reasonable accuracy has been obtained and further iterations could not improve the result.
Required accuracy not obtained in maxitn iterations.
The preconditioner appears not to be positive definite.
The matrix of the coefficients appears not to be positive definite (conjugate gradient method only).
A serious error has occurred in an internal call to an auxiliary function. Check all function calls and array sizes. Seek expert help.
The matrix of the coefficients has a non-real diagonal entry, and is therefore not Hermitian.
An unexpected error has been triggered by this routine. Please contact NAG.
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
Dynamic memory allocation failed.


On successful termination, the final residual rk=b-Axk, where k=itn, satisfies the termination criterion
rk τ × b + A xk .  
The value of the final residual norm is returned in rnorm.

Further Comments

The time taken by nag_sparse_complex_herm_solve_jacssor (f11js) for each iteration is roughly proportional to nz. One iteration with the Lanczos method (SYMMLQ) requires a slightly larger number of operations than one iteration with the conjugate gradient method.
The number of iterations required to achieve a prescribed accuracy cannot easily be determined a priori, as it can depend dramatically on the conditioning and spectrum of the preconditioned matrix of the coefficients A-=M-1A.


This example solves a complex sparse Hermitian positive definite system of equations using the conjugate gradient method, with SSOR preconditioning.
function f11js_example

fprintf('f11js example results\n\n');

% Solve sparse Hermitian system Ax = b using CG method with
% SSOR preconditioning.

% Define A and b 
n  = int64(9);
nz = int64(23);
a  = [ 6 + 0.i; -1 + 1.i;  6 + 0.i;  0 + 1.i;
       5 + 0.i;  5 + 0.i;  2 - 2.i;  4 + 0.i;
       1 + 1.i;  2 + 0.i;  6 + 0.i; -4 + 3.i;
       0 + 1.i; -1 + 0.i;  6 + 0.i; -1 - 1.i;
       0 - 1.i;  9 + 0.i;  1 + 3.i;  1 + 2.i;
      -1 + 0.i;  1 + 4.i;  9 + 0.i];
b  = [ 8 + 54i;-10 - 92i; 25 + 27i; 26 - 28i;
      54 + 12i; 26 - 22i; 47 + 65i; 71 - 57i;
      60 + 70i];
irow = int64([1;2;2;3;3;4;5;5;6;6;6;7;7;7;7;8;8;8;9;9;9;9;9]);
icol = int64([1;1;2;2;3;4;1;5;3;4;6;2;5;6;7;4;6;8;1;5;6;8;9]);

% Solve
method = 'CG';
precon = 'S';
omega  = 1.1;
tol    = 1e-06;
maxitn = int64(100);
x      = complex(zeros(n,1));

[x, rnorm, itn, rdiag, ifail] = ...
f11js( ...
       method, precon, a, irow, icol, omega, b, tol, maxitn, x);

fprintf('Converged in %d iterations\n', itn);
fprintf('Final redidual norm = %16.3d\n\n', rnorm);

f11js example results

Converged in 7 iterations
Final redidual norm =        1.477e-05

   1.0000 + 9.0000i
   2.0000 - 8.0000i
   3.0000 + 7.0000i
   4.0000 - 6.0000i
   5.0000 + 5.0000i
   6.0000 - 4.0000i
   7.0000 + 3.0000i
   8.0000 - 2.0000i
   9.0000 + 1.0000i

PDF version (NAG web site, 64-bit version, 64-bit version)
Chapter Contents
Chapter Introduction
NAG Toolbox

© The Numerical Algorithms Group Ltd, Oxford, UK. 2009–2015