hide long namesshow long names
hide short namesshow short names
Integer type:  int32  int64  nag_int  show int32  show int32  show int64  show int64  show nag_int  show nag_int

PDF version (NAG web site, 64-bit version, 64-bit version)
Chapter Contents
Chapter Introduction
NAG Toolbox

NAG Toolbox: nag_matop_complex_tri_matrix_sqrt (f01fp)


    1  Purpose
    2  Syntax
    7  Accuracy
    9  Example


nag_matop_complex_tri_matrix_sqrt (f01fp) computes the principal matrix square root, A1/2, of a complex upper triangular n by n matrix A.


[a, ifail] = f01fp(a, 'n', n)
[a, ifail] = nag_matop_complex_tri_matrix_sqrt(a, 'n', n)


A square root of a matrix A is a solution X to the equation X2=A. A nonsingular matrix has multiple square roots. For a matrix with no eigenvalues on the closed negative real line, the principal square root, denoted by A1/2, is the unique square root whose eigenvalues lie in the open right half-plane.
nag_matop_complex_tri_matrix_sqrt (f01fp) computes A1/2, where A is an upper triangular matrix. A1/2 is also upper triangular.
The algorithm used by nag_matop_complex_tri_matrix_sqrt (f01fp) is described in Björck and Hammarling (1983). In addition a blocking scheme described in Deadman et al. (2013) is used.


Björck Å and Hammarling S (1983) A Schur method for the square root of a matrix Linear Algebra Appl. 52/53 127–140
Deadman E, Higham N J and Ralha R (2013) Blocked Schur Algorithms for Computing the Matrix Square Root Applied Parallel and Scientific Computing: 11th International Conference, (PARA 2012, Helsinki, Finland) P. Manninen and P. Öster, Eds Lecture Notes in Computer Science 7782 171–181 Springer–Verlag
Higham N J (2008) Functions of Matrices: Theory and Computation SIAM, Philadelphia, PA, USA


Compulsory Input Parameters

1:     alda: – complex array
The first dimension of the array a must be at least n.
The second dimension of the array a must be at least n.
The n by n upper triangular matrix A.

Optional Input Parameters

1:     n int64int32nag_int scalar
Default: the first dimension of the array a.
n, the order of the matrix A.
Constraint: n0.

Output Parameters

1:     alda: – complex array
The first dimension of the array a will be n.
The second dimension of the array a will be n.
Contains, if ifail=0, the n by n principal matrix square root, A1/2. Alternatively, if ifail=1, contains an n by n non-principal square root of A.
2:     ifail int64int32nag_int scalar
ifail=0 unless the function detects an error (see Error Indicators and Warnings).

Error Indicators and Warnings

Errors or warnings detected by the function:
A has negative or semisimple, vanishing eigenvalues. The principal square root is not defined in this case; a non-principal square root is returned.
A has a defective vanishing eigenvalue. The square root cannot be found in this case.
An internal error occurred. It is likely that the function was called incorrectly.
Constraint: n0.
Constraint: ldan.
An unexpected error has been triggered by this routine. Please contact NAG.
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
Dynamic memory allocation failed.


The computed square root X^ satisfies X^2=A+ΔA, where ΔAOεnX^2, where ε is machine precision. The order of the change in A is to be interpreted elementwise.

Further Comments

The cost of the algorithm is n3/3 complex floating-point operations; see Algorithm 6.3 in Higham (2008). O2×n2 of complex allocatable memory is required by the function.
If A is a full matrix, then nag_matop_complex_gen_matrix_sqrt (f01fn) should be used to compute the principal square root.
If condition number and residual bound estimates are required, then nag_matop_complex_gen_matrix_cond_sqrt (f01kd) should be used. For further discussion of the condition of the matrix square root see Section 6.1 of Higham (2008).


This example finds the principal matrix square root of the matrix
A = 2i 14+02i 12+03i 6+04i 0i+0 -5+12i 6+18i 9+16i 0i+0 0i+00 3-04i 16-04i 0i+0 0i+00 0i+00 4i+00 .  
function f01fp_example

fprintf('f01fp example results\n\n');

% Principal square root of complex matrix A

a = [ 2i   14 +  2i   12 +  3i    6 +  4i;
      0    -5 + 12i    6 + 18i    9 + 16i;
      0     0          3 -  4i   16 -  4i;
      0     0          0          4 +  0i];

[as, ifail] = f01fp(a);

disp('Square root of A:');

f01fp example results

Square root of A:
   1.0000 + 1.0000i   2.0000 - 2.0000i   0.0000 + 1.0000i   1.0000 - 1.0000i
   0.0000 + 0.0000i   2.0000 + 3.0000i   3.0000 + 3.0000i   0.0000 + 1.0000i
   0.0000 + 0.0000i   0.0000 + 0.0000i   2.0000 - 1.0000i   4.0000 + 0.0000i
   0.0000 + 0.0000i   0.0000 + 0.0000i   0.0000 + 0.0000i   2.0000 + 0.0000i

PDF version (NAG web site, 64-bit version, 64-bit version)
Chapter Contents
Chapter Introduction
NAG Toolbox

© The Numerical Algorithms Group Ltd, Oxford, UK. 2009–2015