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NAG Toolbox: nag_wav_3d_coeff_ins (c09fz)
Purpose
nag_wav_3d_coeff_ins (c09fz) inserts a selected set of threedimensional discrete wavelet transform (DWT) coefficients into the full set of coefficients stored in compact form, which may be later used as input to the reconstruction functions
nag_wav_3d_sngl_inv (c09fb) or
nag_wav_3d_mxolap_multi_inv (c09fd).
Syntax
Description
nag_wav_3d_coeff_ins (c09fz) inserts a selected set of threedimensional DWT coefficients into the full set of coefficients stored in compact form in a onedimensional array
c. It is required that
nag_wav_3d_coeff_ins (c09fz) is preceded by a call to the initialization function
nag_wav_3d_init (c09ac) and either the forwards transform function
nag_wav_3d_sngl_fwd (c09fa) or multilevel forwards transform function
nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc).
Given an initial threedimensional data set
$A$, a prior call to
nag_wav_3d_sngl_fwd (c09fa) or
nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc) computes the approximation coefficients (at the highest requested level in the case of
nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc)) and, seven sets of detail coefficients (at all levels in the case of
nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc)) and stores these in compact form in a onedimensional array
c.
nag_wav_3d_coeff_ext (c09fy) can then extract either the approximation coefficients or one of the sets of detail coefficients (at one of the levels following
nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc))
into a threedimensional array,
d. Following some calculation on this set of coefficients (for example, denoising), the updated coefficients in
d are inserted back into the full set
c using
nag_wav_3d_coeff_ins (c09fz). Several extractions and insertions may be performed.
nag_wav_3d_sngl_inv (c09fb) or
nag_wav_3d_mxolap_multi_inv (c09fd) can then be used to reconstruct a manipulated data set
$\stackrel{~}{A}$. The dimensions of
d depend on the level extracted and are available from either: the arrays
dwtlvm,
dwtlvn and
dwtlvfr as returned by
nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc) if this was called first; or, otherwise from
nwct,
nwcn and
nwcfr as returned by
nag_wav_3d_init (c09ac). See
Multiresolution and higher dimensional DWT in the C09 Chapter Introduction for a discussion of the threedimensional DWT.
References
None.
Parameters
Note: the following notation is used in this section:
 ${n}_{\mathrm{cm}}$ is the number of wavelet coefficients in the first dimension. Following a call to nag_wav_3d_sngl_fwd (c09fa) (i.e., when ${\mathbf{ilev}}=0$) this is equal to ${\mathbf{nwct}}/\left(8\times {\mathbf{nwcn}}\times {\mathbf{nwcfr}}\right)$ as returned by nag_wav_3d_init (c09ac). Following a call to nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc) transforming nwl levels, and when inserting at level ${\mathbf{ilev}}>0$, this is equal to ${\mathbf{dwtlvm}}\left({\mathbf{nwl}}{\mathbf{ilev}}+1\right)$.
 ${n}_{\mathrm{cn}}$ is the number of wavelet coefficients in the second dimension. Following a call to nag_wav_3d_sngl_fwd (c09fa) (i.e., when ${\mathbf{ilev}}=0$) this is equal to nwcn as returned by nag_wav_3d_init (c09ac). Following a call to nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc) transforming nwl levels, and when inserting at level ${\mathbf{ilev}}>0$, this is equal to ${\mathbf{dwtlvn}}\left({\mathbf{nwl}}{\mathbf{ilev}}+1\right)$.
 ${n}_{\mathrm{cfr}}$ is the number of wavelet coefficients in the third dimension. Following a call to nag_wav_3d_sngl_fwd (c09fa) (i.e., when ${\mathbf{ilev}}=0$) this is equal to nwcfr as returned by nag_wav_3d_init (c09ac). Following a call to nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc) transforming nwl levels, and when inserting at level ${\mathbf{ilev}}>0$, this is equal to ${\mathbf{dwtlvfr}}\left({\mathbf{nwl}}{\mathbf{ilev}}+1\right)$
Compulsory Input Parameters
 1:
$\mathrm{ilev}$ – int64int32nag_int scalar

The level at which coefficients are to be inserted.
If
${\mathbf{ilev}}=0$, it is assumed that the coefficient array
c was produced by a preceding call to the single level function
nag_wav_3d_sngl_fwd (c09fa).
If
${\mathbf{ilev}}>0$, it is assumed that the coefficient array
c was produced by a preceding call to the multilevel function
nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc).
 2:
$\mathrm{cindex}$ – int64int32nag_int scalar

Identifies which coefficients to insert. The coefficients are identified as follows:
 ${\mathbf{cindex}}=0$
 The approximation coefficients, produced by application of the low pass filter over columns, rows and frames of $A$ (LLL). After a call to the multilevel transform function nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc) (which implies that ${\mathbf{ilev}}>0$) the approximation coefficients are present only for ${\mathbf{ilev}}={\mathbf{nwl}}$, where nwl is the value used in a preceding call to nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc).
 ${\mathbf{cindex}}=1$
 The detail coefficients produced by applying the low pass filter over columns and rows of $A$ and the high pass filter over frames (LLH).
 ${\mathbf{cindex}}=2$
 The detail coefficients produced by applying the low pass filter over columns, high pass filter over rows and low pass filter over frames of $A$ (LHL).
 ${\mathbf{cindex}}=3$
 The detail coefficients produced by applying the low pass filter over columns of $A$ and high pass filter over rows and frames (LHH).
 ${\mathbf{cindex}}=4$
 The detail coefficients produced by applying the high pass filter over columns of $A$ and low pass filter over rows and frames (HLL).
 ${\mathbf{cindex}}=5$
 The detail coefficients produced by applying the high pass filter over columns, low pass filter over rows and high pass filter over frames of $A$ (HLH).
 ${\mathbf{cindex}}=6$
 The detail coefficients produced by applying the high pass filter over columns and rows of $A$ and the low pass filter over frames (HHL).
 ${\mathbf{cindex}}=7$
 The detail coefficients produced by applying the high pass filter over columns, rows and frames of $A$ (HHH).
Constraints:
 if ${\mathbf{ilev}}=0$, $0\le {\mathbf{cindex}}\le 7$;
 if ${\mathbf{ilev}}={\mathbf{nwl}}$, following a call to nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc) transforming nwl levels, $0\le {\mathbf{cindex}}\le 7$;
 otherwise $1\le {\mathbf{cindex}}\le 7$.
 3:
$\mathrm{c}\left({\mathbf{lenc}}\right)$ – double array

Contains the DWT coefficients inserted by previous calls to
nag_wav_3d_coeff_ins (c09fz), or computed by a previous call to either
nag_wav_3d_sngl_fwd (c09fa) or
nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc).
 4:
$\mathrm{d}\left(\mathit{ldd},\mathit{sdd},:\right)$ – double array

The last dimension of the array
d
must be at least
${n}_{\mathrm{cfr}}$
The coefficients to be inserted.
If the DWT coefficients were computed by
nag_wav_3d_sngl_fwd (c09fa) then
 if ${\mathbf{cindex}}=0$, the approximation coefficients must be stored in
${\mathbf{d}}\left(i,\mathit{j},\mathit{k}\right)$, for $\mathit{i}=1,2,\dots ,{n}_{\mathrm{cm}}$, $\mathit{j}=1,2,\dots ,{n}_{\mathrm{cn}}$ and $\mathit{k}=1,2,\dots ,{n}_{\mathrm{cfr}}$;
 if $1\le {\mathbf{cindex}}\le 7$, the detail coefficients, as indicated by cindex, must be stored in
${\mathbf{d}}\left(i,\mathit{j},\mathit{k}\right)$, for $\mathit{i}=1,2,\dots ,{n}_{\mathrm{cm}}$, $\mathit{j}=1,2,\dots ,{n}_{\mathrm{cn}}$ and $\mathit{k}=1,2,\dots ,{n}_{\mathrm{cfr}}$.
If the DWT coefficients were computed by
nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc) then
 if ${\mathbf{cindex}}=0$ and ${\mathbf{ilev}}={\mathbf{nwl}}$, the approximation coefficients must be stored in
${\mathbf{d}}\left(i,\mathit{j},\mathit{k}\right)$, for $\mathit{i}=1,2,\dots ,{n}_{\mathrm{cm}}$, $\mathit{j}=1,2,\dots ,{n}_{\mathrm{cn}}$ and $\mathit{k}=1,2,\dots ,{n}_{\mathrm{cfr}}$;
 if $1\le {\mathbf{cindex}}\le 7$, the detail coefficients, as indicated by cindex, for level ilev must be stored in
${\mathbf{d}}\left(i,\mathit{j},\mathit{k}\right)$, for $\mathit{i}=1,2,\dots ,{n}_{\mathrm{cm}}$, $\mathit{j}=1,2,\dots ,{n}_{\mathrm{cn}}$ and $\mathit{k}=1,2,\dots ,{n}_{\mathrm{cfr}}$.
 5:
$\mathrm{icomm}\left(260\right)$ – int64int32nag_int array
Contains details of the discrete wavelet transform and the problem dimension as setup in the call to the initialization function
nag_wav_3d_init (c09ac).
Optional Input Parameters
 1:
$\mathrm{lenc}$ – int64int32nag_int scalar

Default:
the dimension of the array
c.
The dimension of the array
c.
Constraint:
lenc must be unchanged from the value used in the preceding call to either
nag_wav_3d_sngl_fwd (c09fa) or
nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc)..
Output Parameters
 1:
$\mathrm{c}\left({\mathbf{lenc}}\right)$ – double array

Contains the same DWT coefficients provided on entry except for those identified by
ilev and
cindex, which are updated with the values supplied in
d, inserted into the correct locations as expected by one of the reconstruction functions
nag_wav_3d_sngl_inv (c09fb) (if
nag_wav_3d_sngl_fwd (c09fa) was called previously) or
nag_wav_3d_mxolap_multi_inv (c09fd) (if
nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc) was called previously).
 2:
$\mathrm{icomm}\left(260\right)$ – int64int32nag_int array
Communication array, used to store information between calls to nag_wav_3d_coeff_ins (c09fz).
 3:
$\mathrm{ifail}$ – int64int32nag_int scalar
${\mathbf{ifail}}={\mathbf{0}}$ unless the function detects an error (see
Error Indicators and Warnings).
Error Indicators and Warnings
Errors or warnings detected by the function:
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=1$

Constraint:
${\mathbf{ilev}}=0$ following a call to the single level function
nag_wav_3d_sngl_fwd (c09fa).
Constraint:
${\mathbf{ilev}}>0$ following a call to the multilevel function
nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc).
Constraint:
${\mathbf{ilev}}\le {\mathbf{nwl}}$, where
${\mathbf{nwl}}$ is the number of levels used in the call to
nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc).
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=2$

Constraint: ${\mathbf{cindex}}\le 7$.
Constraint: ${\mathbf{cindex}}\ge 0$.
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=3$

Constraint:
${\mathbf{lenc}}\ge {n}_{\mathrm{ct}}$, where
${n}_{\mathrm{ct}}$ is the number of DWT coefficients computed in a previous call to
nag_wav_3d_sngl_fwd (c09fa).
Constraint:
${\mathbf{lenc}}\ge {n}_{\mathrm{ct}}$, where
${n}_{\mathrm{ct}}$ is the number of DWT coefficients computed in a previous call to
nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc).
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=4$

Constraint:
$\mathit{ldd}\ge {n}_{\mathrm{cm}}$, where
${n}_{\mathrm{cm}}$ is the number of DWT coefficients in the first dimension at the selected level
ilev.
Constraint: $\mathit{ldd}\ge {n}_{\mathrm{cm}}$, where ${n}_{\mathrm{cm}}$ is the number of DWT coefficients in the first dimension following the single level transform.
Constraint:
$\mathit{sdd}\ge {n}_{\mathrm{cn}}$, where
${n}_{\mathrm{cn}}$ is the number of DWT coefficients in the second dimension at the selected level
ilev.
Constraint: $\mathit{sdd}\ge {n}_{\mathrm{cn}}$, where ${n}_{\mathrm{cn}}$ is the number of DWT coefficients in the second dimension following the single level transform.
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=5$

Constraint:
${\mathbf{cindex}}>0$ when
${\mathbf{ilev}}<{\mathbf{nwl}}$ in the preceding call to
nag_wav_3d_multi_fwd (c09fc).
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=6$

Either the initialization function has not been called first or
icomm has been corrupted.
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=99$
An unexpected error has been triggered by this routine. Please
contact
NAG.
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=399$
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=999$
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
Accuracy
Not applicable.
Further Comments
None.
Example
The following example demonstrates using the coefficient extraction and insertion functions in order to apply denoising using a thresholding operation. The original input data has artificial noise introduced to it, taken from a normal random number distribution. Reconstruction then takes place on both the noisy data and denoised data. The Mean Square Errors (MSE) of the two reconstructions are printed along with the reconstruction of the denoised data. The MSE of the denoised reconstruction is less than that of the noisy reconstruction.
Open in the MATLAB editor:
c09fz_example
function c09fz_example
fprintf('c09fz example results\n\n');
m = int64(4);
n = int64(4);
f = int64(4);
a = zeros(m,n,f);
a(1:2:m,:,1:2:f) = 0.01;
a(2:2:m,:,2:2:f) = 0.01;
a(2:2:m,:,1:2:f) = 1;
a(1:2:m,:,2:2:f) = 1;
genid = int64(3);
subid = int64(0);
seed(1) = int64(642521);
[state, ifail] = g05kf(genid, subid, seed);
[state, x, ifail] = g05sk(m*n*f, 0, 1.0e4, state);
an = a + reshape(x,[m,n,f]);
fprintf('\nInput data a:\n');
disp(a);
fprintf('\nNoisy data an:\n');
disp(an);
wavnam = 'Haar';
mode = 'Period';
wtrans = 'Multilevel';
[nwl, nf, nwct, nwcn, nwcf, icomm, ifail] = ...
c09ac(...
wavnam, wtrans, mode, m, n, f);
[c, dwtlvm, dwtlvn, dwtlvfr, icomm, ifail] = ...
c09fc(...
n, f, an, nwct, nwl, icomm);
[b, ifail] = c09fd(nwl, c, m, n, f, icomm);
mse = (norm(reshape(ab,[m*n*f,1]))^2)/(double(m*n*f));
fprintf('Without denoising Mean Square Error is %9.6f\n',mse);
thresh = 0.01*sqrt(2*log(double(m*n*f)));
nt = 0;
nnt = 0;
for ilev = 1:nwl
level = int64(nwl  ilev + 1);
for detail = int64(1:7)
[d, icomm, ifail] = c09fy(...
level, detail, c, icomm);
d1 = dwtlvm(ilev);
d2 = dwtlvn(ilev);
d3 = dwtlvfr(ilev);
for i = 1:d1
for j = 1:d2
for k = 1:d3
if abs(d(i,j,k))<thresh
d(i,j,k) = 0;
nt = nt + 1;
end
nnt = nnt + 1;
end
end
end
[c, icomm, ifail] = c09fz(...
level, detail, c, d, icomm);
end
end
fprintf('\nNumber of coefficients denoised is %3d out of %3d\n',nt,nnt);
[b, ifail] = c09fd(nwl, c, m, n, f, icomm);
mse = (norm(reshape(ab,[m*n*f,1]))^2)/(double(m*n*f));
fprintf('With denoising Mean Square Error is %9.6f\n\n',mse);
disp('Reconstruction of denoised input: ');
disp(b);
c09fz example results
Input data a:
(:,:,1) =
0.0100 0.0100 0.0100 0.0100
1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
0.0100 0.0100 0.0100 0.0100
1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
(:,:,2) =
1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
0.0100 0.0100 0.0100 0.0100
1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
0.0100 0.0100 0.0100 0.0100
(:,:,3) =
0.0100 0.0100 0.0100 0.0100
1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
0.0100 0.0100 0.0100 0.0100
1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
(:,:,4) =
1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
0.0100 0.0100 0.0100 0.0100
1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
0.0100 0.0100 0.0100 0.0100
Noisy data an:
(:,:,1) =
0.0135 0.0093 0.0004 0.0378
1.0015 0.9842 1.0007 0.9889
0.0017 0.0139 0.0138 0.0049
0.9899 1.0070 1.0049 0.9983
(:,:,2) =
1.0094 1.0080 0.9921 0.9902
0.0105 0.0009 0.0160 0.0197
0.9994 1.0044 0.9956 1.0014
0.0091 0.0084 0.0187 0.0023
(:,:,3) =
0.0058 0.0053 0.0011 0.0159
1.0113 0.9894 1.0018 0.9992
0.0106 0.0082 0.0093 0.0153
1.0023 1.0157 1.0084 0.9834
(:,:,4) =
0.9969 1.0010 0.9904 0.9968
0.0227 0.0022 0.0062 0.0214
0.9948 0.9981 0.9951 0.9968
0.0121 0.0103 0.0114 0.0206
Without denoising Mean Square Error is 0.000081
Number of coefficients denoised is 55 out of 63
With denoising Mean Square Error is 0.000015
Reconstruction of denoised input:
(:,:,1) =
0.0053 0.0053 0.0166 0.0166
1.0026 1.0026 0.9913 0.9913
0.0055 0.0055 0.0077 0.0077
1.0025 1.0025 1.0003 1.0003
(:,:,2) =
1.0026 1.0026 0.9913 0.9913
0.0053 0.0053 0.0166 0.0166
1.0025 1.0025 1.0003 1.0003
0.0055 0.0055 0.0077 0.0077
(:,:,3) =
0.0073 0.0073 0.0110 0.0110
1.0006 1.0006 0.9969 0.9969
0.0078 0.0078 0.0131 0.0131
1.0002 1.0002 0.9949 0.9949
(:,:,4) =
1.0006 1.0006 0.9969 0.9969
0.0073 0.0073 0.0110 0.0110
1.0002 1.0002 0.9949 0.9949
0.0078 0.0078 0.0131 0.0131
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