NAG Library Routine Document

s14aff (psi_deriv_complex)


s14aff returns the value of the kth derivative of the psi function ψz for complex z and k=0,1,,4, via the function name.


Fortran Interface
Function s14aff ( z, k, ifail)
Complex (Kind=nag_wp):: s14aff
Integer, Intent (In):: k
Integer, Intent (Inout):: ifail
Complex (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (In):: z
C Header Interface
#include <nagmk26.h>
Complex  s14aff_ (const Complex *z, const Integer *k, Integer *ifail)


s14aff evaluates an approximation to the kth derivative of the psi function ψz given by
ψ k z=dkdzk ψz=dkdzk ddz logeΓz ,  
where z=x+iy is complex provided y0 and k=0,1,,4. If y=0, z is real and thus ψ k z is singular when z=0,-1,-2,.
Note that ψ k z is also known as the polygamma function. Specifically, ψ 0 z is often referred to as the digamma function and ψ 1 z as the trigamma function in the literature. Further details can be found in Abramowitz and Stegun (1972).
s14aff is based on a modification of the method proposed by Kölbig (1972).
To obtain the value of ψ k z when z is real, s14aef can be used.


Abramowitz M and Stegun I A (1972) Handbook of Mathematical Functions (3rd Edition) Dover Publications
Kölbig K S (1972) Programs for computing the logarithm of the gamma function, and the digamma function, for complex arguments Comp. Phys. Comm. 4 221–226


1:     z – Complex (Kind=nag_wp)Input
On entry: the argument z of the function.
Constraint: Re(z) must not be ‘too close’ (see Section 6) to a non-positive integer when Im(z)=0.0.
2:     k – IntegerInput
On entry: the function ψkz to be evaluated.
Constraint: 0k4.
3:     ifail – IntegerInput/Output
On entry: ifail must be set to 0, -1 or 1. If you are unfamiliar with this argument you should refer to Section 3.4 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for details.
For environments where it might be inappropriate to halt program execution when an error is detected, the value -1 or 1 is recommended. If the output of error messages is undesirable, then the value 1 is recommended. Otherwise, if you are not familiar with this argument, the recommended value is 0. When the value -1 or 1 is used it is essential to test the value of ifail on exit.
On exit: ifail=0 unless the routine detects an error or a warning has been flagged (see Section 6).

Error Indicators and Warnings

If on entry ifail=0 or -1, explanatory error messages are output on the current error message unit (as defined by x04aaf).
Errors or warnings detected by the routine:
On entry, k=value.
Constraint: k4.
On entry, k=value.
Constraint: k0.
On entry, Re(z) is ‘too close’ to a non-positive integer when Im(z)=0.0: Re(z)=value, nintRe(z)=value.
Evaluation abandoned due to likelihood of overflow.
An unexpected error has been triggered by this routine. Please contact NAG.
See Section 3.9 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
See Section 3.8 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
See Section 3.7 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.


Empirical tests have shown that the maximum relative error is a loss of approximately two decimal places of precision.

Parallelism and Performance

s14aff is not threaded in any implementation.

Further Comments



This example evaluates the psi (trigamma) function ψ 1 z at z=-1.5+2.5i, and prints the results.

Program Text

Program Text (s14affe.f90)

Program Data

Program Data (s14affe.d)

Program Results

Program Results (s14affe.r)